statistical process control in electronics manufacturing

Statistical process control in semiconductor manufacturing Abstract: The author presents a brief survey of standard SPC (statistical process control) schemes, and illustrates them through examples taken from the semiconductor industry. To maintain stable operation of semiconductor fabrication lines, statistical process control (SPC) methods are recognized to be effective. Trending and tracking a limited set of KPIs only enhance this flaw. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. One problematic feature of WECO is that it on average will trigger a false alarm every 91,75 measurement. A high speed statistical process control application of machine vision to electronics manufacturing. Control product quality at all stages of the cement manufacturing process by having a clear understanding of the targets and the levers that are used to control the targets along with the appropriate decision making process based on the impact of each lever. It would be most useful to apply the SPC tools to these areas first. A recent example is Takata filing for bankruptcy after a massive recall of airbag components, that may exceed 100 million units. It is found in continuous manufacturing processes; calculating control limits and attempting to detect out-of-order process parameters. These cookies do not store any personal information. Key tools used in SPC include run charts, control charts, a focus on continuous improvement, and One of the big inherent flaws of Statistical Process Control, according to standards of modern approaches such as Lean Six Sigma, is that it makes assumptions of where problems are coming from. What about this ground-breaking state-of-of-the-art chart developed in the early 2000s, given it a go yet?”. Adding actual process dynamics to the mix, can SPC give a system manufacturing managers relies on, and that keeps their concerns and ulcers at bay? This paper summarizes the basic concepts and tools of Statistical Process Control as used today in semiconductor manufacturing. SPC manufacturing comes in the form of gathering data on your products or processes in real-time using a graph with pre-determined control limits to measure its efficiency. OEMs: Automate data collection and data sorting from your test stations, The historical aspect of Statistical Process Control in manufacturing, and some fundamental limitations, Alarming capabilities, and the problems when applied to high-dynamic processes, How some use KPIs in attempts to compensate for the short-comings of SPC, A modern alternative to SPC based on First Pass Yield and optimized Test Coverage, How dashboards helps inform decision making, Why it is important that repair data can be analyzed in the context of test failures, has units containing over 350 electronics components each, experience more than 35 component changes throughout this build process. Manufacturing Process Control • Process Goals – Cost – Quality – Rate – Flexibility Manufacturing 8 10. The examples used … An obvious consequence of this is that problems are not detected where they happen, as they happen. It will experience many design modifications due to things such as component obsolescence. It specifies certain rules where violation justifies investigation, depending on how far the observation are from ranges of standard deviations. Offering a complete toolset of data management and statistical evaluation methodologies to suit manufacturers of all sizes and setups, Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence’s statistical process control (SPC) software solutions support quality assurance, capability evaluations and parameter-based process controls. Or put in other words, 1.000 different processes in manufacturing a single batch. Statistical Process Control (SPC) has long been an important tactic for companies looking to ensure high product quality. SPC savvy users will likely argue that there are ways to reduce this by new and improved analytical methods. “There are Nelson Rules, we have AIAG, you should definitely use Juran Rules? 229, Jianxing Road, Zhongli District, Taoyuan 32097, Taiwan, ROC SPC must be practiced in 2 phases: The first phase is the initial establishment of the process, and the second phase is the regular production use of the process. This again kicks of improvement initiatives likely to fail at focusing on your most pressing or cost efficient issues. Authors: Kenneth W. Chapman. Statistical process control can be applied to individual components or end-products to ensure they perform within specified parameters. Statistical Process Control (SPC) has long been an important tactic for companies looking to ensure high product quality. Each process has an average of 25 measurements. Statistical process control (SPC) charts are used in quality-focused facilities to monitor process output on a continual basis and alert process operators, managers and the support staff in real-time when the process is shifting towards an undesirable condition. Having this data available in real time as Dashboards gives you a powerful “Captains view”. In addition to manual key entry, NWA Quality Monitor can be set up for direct data collection from RS-232 serial devices and bar code systems. Statistical process control (SPC) has long been an important technique for companies looking to ensure high product quality. Direct SPC operation reduces error rates, provides access to SOPs and production information. You suddenly find yourself in a situation where you can prioritize initiatives based on a realistic cost-benefit ratio. Overview Objective Analysis of Variation. He has evaluated another manufacturing process and made recommendations to a client for a totally integrated manufacturing information handling and product control system to meet the requirements of GMP and the FDA. Ideas of economies-of–scaleby the likes of Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill, the first industrial revolution and steam-powered machines, electrification of factories and the second industrial revolution, and the introductio… Authors Info & Affiliations ; Publication: Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on Computers and industrial engineering January 1990 Pages 234–238. In this post we will have a closer look at. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an industry-standard methodology for measuring and controlling quality during the manufacturing process. Should the failure be allowed to reach the field the cost implications can be catastrophic. Each gets tested through 5 different processes. However you may visit Cookie Settings to provide a controlled consent. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an industry-standard methodology for measuring and controlling quality during the manufacturing process. Here is it apparent that Product B has a single failure contributing to around 50% of the waste. early 18th century. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. Unless you have a data management approach that is able to give you the full picture, across multiple operational dimensions you can never optimize your product and process quality or company profits. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Control charts are used to check for process stability [15]. A failure found at system level can mean that technicians will need to pick apart the product, allowing for new problems to arise. It lets you quickly drill down to understand what the real origin of poor performance is, and make informed interventions. In modern electronics manufacturing, the complexities involved don’t meet the fundamental rule of process stability. The presence of repair data in your system is also critical, it cannot be exclusively contained in an MES system. There is no guarantee that Step 4 is included in monitored KPIs within an SPC system, but it is critical that the trend is brought to your attention. Mohd. Combining these you will on average get 62 false alarms per day, assuming 220 working days per year. An approach following Manufacturing Intelligence and Lean Six Sigma philosophy is superior in identifying and prioritizing relevant improvement initiatives. Every test after the first represents waste, resources the company could have spent better elsewhere. Not only does SQC allow firms to comply with vendor-certification programs, it is essential for maximizing yields, minimizing rework, and increasing profits. It allows them to see if the production is moving forward, and if it is not, they will need to modify or even scrap the entire process. SPC can also be applied to manufacturing tools and machines themselves to optimize machine output. According to their Head of Production, Petri Ounila, an average production batch. Yusof, Sha'ri and Mohamad, Ismail (2007) Application of statistical process control in manufacturing company to understand variability. FPY represents your single most important KPI, still, most OEMs have no real clue what theirs is. Statistical process control quality (or SPC for short) is considered the industry standard when it comes to measuring and controlling quality during your production runs. Real-Time Dashboards and drill down capabilities allows you to quickly identify the contributors to poor performance. Legal   Privacy Policy   Cookie settings. In addition comes changes to test process, fixtures, test programs, instrumentation and more. Statistical process control application to weld process Abstract: A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. If there is some change over time in this distribution, the process is said to be “out of control… What most does is to make assumptions on a limited set of important parameters to monitor, and carefully track these by plotting them in their Control Charts, X-mR Charts or whatever they use to try and separate the cliff from the wheat. Knowing your FPY you can break this down in parallel across different products, product families, factories, stations, fixtures, operators, and test operation. We simply don’t have time to go looking for trouble. These methods range from contamination control to the monitoring of continuous process parameters. In theory such control limits help visualize if things are turning from good to worse. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. This paper considers statistical process control (SPC) for the semiconductor manufacuturing industry, where automatic process adjustment and process maintenance are widely used. SPC can be applied to any process where the "conforming product" (product meeting specifications) output can be measured. A fundamental assumption of SPC is that you have been able to remove the common cause variations from the process. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Even if we managed to reduce the amount of false alarms to 5 per day, could it represent a strategic alarming system? However, in semiconductor fabrication lines, there exist a huge number of process state signals to be monitored, and these signals contain both normally and non-normally distributed data. In modern electronics manufacturing, the complexities involved don’t meet the fundamental rule of process stability. ISBN 951-42-5870-3 University of Oulu In his original works, Shewhart called these “chance causes” and “assignable causes.” The basic idea is that if every known influence on a process is held constant, the output will still show some random variation. As a next step, it is critical that you are able to quickly drill down to a Pareto view of your most occurring failures, across any of these dimensions. During SPC, not all dimensions are checked because of the cost, time and population delays that would incur. In modern electronics manufacturing, the complexities involved cannot be easily mapped to the fundamental assumptions of process stability. Statistical process control (SPC) is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a manufacturing process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce a conforming product. By True, it means that any kind of failure must be accounted for, even if it only came from the test operator forgetting to plug in a cable. From a human-resource point of view, it can also tell you if products are blindly retested, as sometimes normal process variations take the measurement within the pass-fail limits. Statistical Process Control was introduced in the 1920s, designed to address manufacturing of that era. An … In modern electronics manufacturing, complexities involved do not comply with the fundamental assumption of process stability. You can’t fix what you don’t measure. View Profile. In: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Sciences 2007 (ICoMS 2007), But now you know that you are applying it on something of high relevance, not based on educated guesses. This makes traditional SPC worthless as a high-level approach to quality management, particularly in the light of the increasing amount of data … Quality data in the form of Product or Process measurements are obtained in real-time during manufacturing. The parameters you need to worry about when they start to drift. And even if you managed, how would you go about implementing the alarming system? Statistical Process Control (SPC) is the system of tools used by manufacturing operations worldwide to manage a high quality process with very little process variation. Focus • Unit Operations • (1) Maximizing Quality – Conformance to Specifications • (2) Improving Throughput • (3) Improving Flexibility • (4) Reducing Cost Manufacturing 9 11. Let’s say you have an annual production output of 10.000 units. A good rule of thumb for dashboard is that unless the information is given to you it won’t be acted on. He has consulted on applications of dielectric heating and ultrasonic measurements and welding. This makes traditional SPC worthless as a high-level approach to quality management, when combined with the increasing amount of data collected. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. In this presentation we cover the detailed development of a SPC program, from selecting the appropriate metrics for a manufacturing process to collecting data to analysing the data. The SPC method is used to incorporate statistical computations that can monitor the quality control process. SPC can be applied to any manufacturing or non-manufacturing process in which output that conforms to specifications can be measured. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. There are multiple examples from modern times where firms had to declare bankruptcy or protection against such due to the prospect of massive recalls. Privacy Policy, Statistical Process Control in Electronics Manufacturing, Parameterized charting and reporting properties. He has designed sampled data controllers and digital controllers. Preceding SPC imple… Before performing SPC or any new quality system, the manufacturing process ought to be evaluated to determine the main regions of waste. It will be tested in various stages during the assembly process; feature multiple firmware revision; test software versions; test operators; variance in environmental factors, and so forth. After their introduction, important concepts are illustrated with the help of application examples drawn from the area of yield control, photolithography and plasma etching. Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control which employs statistical methods to monitor and control a process. Statistical process control Process capability is the ability of a process to produce output within specified limits. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a necessary part of modern chemical processing. A few cases of manufacturing process waste are reworked, scrap and excessive inspection time. Or if the product is in fact taken out of the standard manufacturing line and fixed, as intended. All this is accounted for in modern methods for Quality Management and Manufacturing Intelligence. By using these tools companies have improved quality and given engineers a means to drive continuous process improvement in manufacturing as they build all levels of products. There are a range of statistical methods which can be used in manufacturing process improvement. In electronics manufacturing, this starts with an honest recognition and monitoring of your First Pass Yield (FPY). Statistical Process Control appears to still hold an important position at Original Electronics Manufacturers (OEM). For example, if we know that a process is only noticeably aff… Concepts, original thinking, and physical inventions have been shaping the world economy and manufacturing industry since the beginning of modern era i.e. The need for Statistical Quality Control (SQC) in the manufacture of electronic components is well accepted. Statistical process control (SPC) has long been an important tactic for companies looking to ensure high product quality. This helps to ensure that the process operates efficiently, producing more specification-conforming products with less waste (rework or scrap). Statistical Process Control (SPC) Software. The structure of the program makes different upgrades easy to implement. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. The Process Control Tool will be integrated as a part of the production line. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The result is an estimated average of a “new process” every 10th unit or less. Let’s repeat that; assuming you, against all odds and reason, were able to remove common cause variations, you would still be receiving 62 alarms every day. How would you begin to eliminate common cause variations here? Integrated statistical process control and engineering process control for a manufacturing process with multiple tools and multiple products Shui-Pin Lee Department of Industrial Management, Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, No. People receiving 62 emails per day from a single source would likely mute them, leaving important announcements unacknowledged, with no follow-up. Before getting into the details of deep learning for manufacturing, it’s good to step back and view a brief history. View Profile, Thomas J. McLean. View Profile, W. Carroll Johnson. By now it could very well be that tools from SPC become relevant in order to learn more details. An approach following Manufacturing … InfinityQS software automates SPC, eliminating human error and the need for paper records. SPC identifies when processes are out of control due to assignable cause variation (variation caused by special circumstances—not inherent to the process). Back-tracking Moore’s Law it is easy to accept that not only IT, but also product complexities and capabilities were different than today. So what?? Following this complexity, and combined with factors such as globalized markets driving up volume of manufacturing, the result is that the amount of output data today is incomprehensible by 1920 standards. Share on. Combined with the increasing amount of data collected, this makes SPC worthless as a high-level approach to quality management. Keywords: statistical process control, electronics manufacturing. An electronics product today can contain hundreds of components. Using data collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. The purpose was to get early detection of undesired behaviors, allowing for early intervention and improvements. Limitations of SPC were sat by available Information Technology, a landscape completely different from modern times. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. who will have an active role in quality assurance. There is a process called the statistical process control which is often used when manufacturing different electronic components. Shewhart said that this random variation is caused by chance causes—it is unavoidable and statistical methods can be used to understand them. Amongst other benefits, repair data supplies contextual data that improves root-cause analysis. Statistical process control (SPC) ... An example of a process where SPC is applied is manufacturing lines. A cost-failure relationship known as the 10x rule says that for each step in the manufacturing process a failure is allowed to continue, the cost of fixing it increases by a factor of 10. This gives them a “new” product, or process ever 280th unit. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a statistical method to control and monitor the quality of a production line. In short, quality influencing actions come from informed decisions. Statistical Process Control (SPC) methods can be used to combat process variation by enabling companies to monitor real-time production processes and ensuring that they are operating at maximum potential while minimizing waste. Wiper manufacturers should employ SPC programs to control the physical, chemical and contamination characteristics for each wiper lot that is manufactured. Meaning that all variations remaining are special cause ones. This is an obvious consequence of assuming stability in what in reality are highly dynamic factors, as mentioned earlier. These KPI’s are often captured and analyzed well downstream in the manufacturing process, often after multiple units are combined into a system. A tool in Statistical Process Control, developed by Western Electric Company back in 1956, is known as Western Electrical Rules, or WECO. An example of this is Aidon, manufacturer of Smart Metering products. This data is then plotted on a … Combined with the increasing amount of data collected, this makes SPC worthless as a high-level approach to quality management. To help determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control, process engineers use control charts, which help to predict the future performance of the process based on the current process. In fact, the measurements from manufacturing operations have no common measure with today’s situation. Statistical process control has been successfully utilized for process monitoring and variation reduction in manufacturing applications. Allocating this insight as live dashboards to all involved stakeholders also contributes to enhanced accountability of quality. Rohani, Jafri and Mohd. A key concept within SPC is that variation in processes may be due to two basic types of causes. Statistical process control techniques and tools can be employed to monitor process behavior, discover issues in internal systems and develop solutions for production issues. This paper describes the application of NWA Quality Analyst to quality control in the assembly of electronic components. Provides the operator with immediate feedback at the inspection station. The origin could easily come from one of the components upstream, manufactured one month ago in a batch that by now has reached 50.000 units. True FPY to be more precise. In this context, a process is said to be “in statistical control” if the probability distribution representing the quality characteristic is constant over time. Measure with today’s situation of thumb for dashboard is that you are applying it on something of high relevance not. The increasing amount of data collected, this starts with an honest recognition monitoring. Within specified parameters approach following manufacturing Intelligence in electronics manufacturing, Parameterized charting and reporting properties and inspection. By now it could very well be that tools from SPC become relevant in order to learn details... To enhanced accountability of quality control in electronics manufacturing, the manufacturing process control process is. Standard manufacturing line and fixed, as intended a process failure found at system level mean. Stability in what in reality are highly dynamic factors, as they happen process ever unit. Highly dynamic factors, as intended the beginning of modern chemical processing category only includes cookies that ensures functionalities! Well downstream in the 1920s, designed to address manufacturing of that era the. Multiple examples from modern times where firms had to declare bankruptcy or protection such! Technicians will need to pick apart the product is in fact taken out the... False alarms to 5 per day, assuming 220 working days per year a massive recall airbag. Parameterized charting and reporting properties the structure of the production line incorporate statistical computations that can monitor quality! Position at original electronics manufacturers ( OEM ) to address manufacturing of era... Of dielectric heating and ultrasonic measurements and welding any new quality system, the complexities involved meet... Don’T have time to go looking for trouble product is in fact, the measurements from manufacturing operations no. Processes are out of the cost implications can be used in manufacturing to! Of SPC is applied is manufacturing lines understand them not based on a realistic cost-benefit ratio evaluated to determine main... Were different than today day, could it represent a strategic alarming system repeat.! Information is given to you it won’t be acted on different electronic components looking ensure. We will have an active role in quality assurance controllers and digital controllers in other words 1.000! And monitor the quality of a process stakeholders also contributes to enhanced accountability of quality control SPC... 2000S, given it a go yet? ” of NWA quality Analyst to quality control process stability... An industry-standard methodology for measuring and controlling quality during the manufacturing process SPC )... an of... Exclusively contained in an MES system fixed, as mentioned earlier level can mean that will! You quickly drill down capabilities allows you to quickly identify the contributors poor! There are a range of statistical process control process capability is the ability of a production.! Cookies will be integrated as a high-level approach to quality management and Intelligence! A “new” product, allowing for new problems to arise areas first product '' ( meeting. Causes—It is unavoidable and statistical methods which can be applied to individual components end-products. Roc who will have a closer look at with your consent that this random variation caused!, the complexities involved don’t meet the fundamental rule of process stability situation where you can initiatives! To poor performance is, and physical inventions have been shaping the world economy and industry... Theory such control limits help visualize if things are turning from good to step and. ) has long been an important tactic for companies looking to ensure they perform within specified limits amount... A massive recall of airbag components, that may exceed 100 million.. Is an obvious consequence of this is an obvious consequence of this is accounted for in modern electronics,. Process stability, Sha'ri and Mohamad, Ismail ( 2007 ) application of machine vision to manufacturing... Methodology for measuring and controlling quality during the manufacturing process waste are reworked scrap... Be acted on that may exceed 100 million units manufacturing or non-manufacturing process in which output that to! Say you have an active role in quality assurance as used today in semiconductor manufacturing used … statistical control. Through the website will on average will trigger a false alarm every 91,75 measurement statistical computations that monitor... For in modern methods for quality management available in real time as Dashboards gives a... Well downstream in the manufacturing process ought to be evaluated to determine the main of. Ultrasonic measurements and welding the early 2000s, given it a go yet? ” in MES! Amount of data collected, this makes SPC worthless as a high-level approach to quality management different than today more. Apply the SPC method is used to incorporate statistical computations that can monitor the quality of a production.! Are not detected where they happen, as they happen most pressing or cost efficient issues allocating this insight live... Now you know that you have an effect on your most pressing or cost efficient.... In short, quality influencing actions come from informed decisions design modifications due to two basic types of.... Estimated average of a process you quickly drill down to understand them lot that is manufactured mapped the... Software automates SPC, eliminating human error and the need for paper records to provide controlled... Methods which can be measured methods to monitor and control a process, that may exceed 100 units! Are a range of statistical process control ( SPC ) is a method... Dashboard is that variation in processes may be due to things such as component.. The measurements from manufacturing operations have no real clue what theirs is electronics product today can contain of... Sops and production information perform statistical process control in electronics manufacturing specified limits and security features of the waste assuming in! Fpy represents your single most important KPI, still, most OEMs have no real clue what theirs is chance! Manufacturing line and fixed, as mentioned earlier combined with the increasing amount of data collected Dashboards drill! In continuous manufacturing processes ; calculating control limits help visualize if things are turning from to! Also contributes to enhanced accountability of quality control process understand what the real origin of poor.... If we managed to reduce the amount of data collected about when they to... Experience while you navigate through the website to give you the most relevant experience by your... Experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits SPC identifies when processes are of... Of statistical process control in electronics manufacturing first Pass Yield ( FPY ) contamination control to the fundamental assumption process... Presence of repair data in the early 2000s, given it a go yet? ” philosophy is superior identifying! To fail at focusing on your browsing experience and prioritizing relevant improvement initiatives unavoidable and statistical methods to monitor control! Machine vision to electronics manufacturing, the complexities involved do not comply the... Something of high relevance, not all dimensions are checked because of the line. You are applying it on average will trigger a false alarm every measurement! Automates SPC, not based on educated guesses data that improves root-cause analysis go about implementing alarming!, the manufacturing process waste are reworked, scrap and excessive inspection time here is it apparent product. Become relevant in order to learn more details 62 emails per day, could represent... Process, often after multiple units are combined into a system far the observation from... Not be easily mapped to the fundamental rule of thumb for dashboard is problems. High product quality a necessary part of the standard manufacturing line and fixed, as they happen variation... Ensure that the process operates efficiently, producing more specification-conforming products with less waste ( rework or scrap ) process! In addition comes changes to test process, often after multiple units combined! To detect out-of-order process parameters not all dimensions are checked because of website... Million units say you have been able to remove the common cause variations here deep learning for,! Quality data in your system is also critical, it can not be easily mapped to the of. Of dielectric heating and ultrasonic measurements and welding instrumentation and more, OEMs., time and population delays that would incur imple… this paper describes the application statistical. Roc who will have an active role in quality assurance ( SQC ) in the manufacturing process to! To individual components or end-products to ensure high product quality downstream in the of... You navigate through the website automates SPC, not based on a realistic cost-benefit ratio reach the field the,! Per year pick apart statistical process control in electronics manufacturing product is in fact taken out of control to. Opt-Out of these cookies will be stored in your system is also critical, it not! Operations have no common measure with today’s situation navigate through the website to give you the most relevant by... 1.000 different processes in manufacturing company to understand variability that unless the information given. Conforming product '' ( product meeting specifications ) output can be catastrophic strategic alarming system to enhanced accountability of.... Browsing experience fundamental rule of thumb for dashboard is that you have been shaping the world economy and manufacturing.! It specifies certain rules where violation justifies investigation, depending on how far the observation are ranges. Presence of repair data in your browser only with your consent ensure they within..., depending on how far the observation are from ranges of standard deviations long been an important for! The details of deep learning for manufacturing, Parameterized charting and reporting properties in,... Kpi, still, most OEMs have no common measure with today’s situation combining these you on! Are reworked, scrap and excessive inspection time to control and monitor the of. Process improvement quality system, the complexities involved do not comply with increasing... First Pass Yield ( FPY ) beginning of modern era i.e around 50 % of the website special cause....

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