spanish colonial era

The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. Ida Altman, S.L. Tribute goods in Mexico were most usually lengths of cotton cloth, woven by women, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men. Though the ethnic art forms such as pottery, weaving and metalwork were retained, the Spanish friars and the Chinese, the colony’s primary trading partner, were slowly introducing newer art forms. [67], Provinces in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. Jun 8, 2017 What is it about the allure of a historic house? Cline, and Javier Pescador, Cook, David Noble. However, since they did not have a son to succeed them, the Spanish Crown went to the son of their oldest daughter, Juana, who was married to Philip, Duke of Burgundy. [122] Religious orders along with the Jesuits then embarked on further evangelization in frontier regions of the empire. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru." 1500–1850), Timeline of imperialism § Colonization of North America, "Victimario Histórico Militar Capítulo IX De las 16 mayores Guerras y Genocidios del siglo XVI de 60.000 a 3.000.000 de muertos", "DEATH BY GOVERNMENT Chapter 3 Pre-Twentieth Century Democide", Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture 1996, "Su Majestad quiere gobernar: la Administración española en Indias durante los siglos XVI y XVII", "Las instituciones políticas en la región de Cuyo", "El gobierno y la imagen de la Monarquía Hispánica en los viajeros de los siglos XVI y XVII. 25. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. [15] Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Spalding, Karen. He then founded the settlement of Isabela on the island they named Hispaniola (now divided into Haiti and the Dominican Republic). [149] The similarly epic and dark journey of Lope de Aguirre was made into a film by Werner Herzog, Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), starring Klaus Kinsky. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain. Native American tribes spoke different languages. Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. Identify the main Spanish American colonial settlements of the 1500s and 1600s Discuss economic, political, and demographic similarities and differences between the Spanish colonies During the 1500s, Spain expanded its colonial empire to the Philippines in the Far East and to areas in the Americas that later became the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1992. True or false? The Spanish naval ships began to fly this flag in the early 1500s in honor of their king. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … Spanish Colonial Era. The largest population in Spanish America was and remained indigenous, what Spaniards called "Indians" (indios), a category that did not exist before the arrival of the Europeans. Farming gave Native Americans a dependable source of food. [141] Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) has Georges Corroface as Columbus with Marlon Brando as Tomás de Torquemada and Tom Selleck as King Ferdinand and Rachel Ward as Queen Isabela. [73], The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. Spain built Mission Systems to protect its claim to North American Colonies. Five hundred Spaniards did not topple the Aztec Empire alone. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. During the pre-colonial period, it was the dominant pattern of organization of the indigenous communities. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. Vol. Physical torture was meted out to the unmanageable prisoners. Spanish settlement in Mexico “largely replicated the organization of the area in preconquest times” while in Peru, the center of the Incas was too far south, too remote, and at too high an altitude for the Spanish capital. Indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, were exempt from the head-tax, and could entail their landholdings into cacicazgos. $100.00. Attitude of the Spanish clergy in the early phase – Spanish friars was forced to learn the native language of the peoples they sought to convert. Cities were governed on the same pattern as in Spain and in the Indies the city was the framework of Spanish life. Spanish Colonial homes were first built in the parts of America settled by Spaniards—namely Florida, California, and throughout the Southwest—from the 1600s to the mid-1800s. [46] The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. He was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, probably the most powerful man in Europe at that time. STUDY. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. The following is a description of the way of life of pre-colonial Filipinos. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. The profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. In areas of sparse population, ranching of cattle (ganado mayor) and smaller livestock (ganado menor) such as sheep and goats ranged widely and were largely feral. In 1506, Philip came to rule Spain as Philip I, regent to his young son Charles. Thus, it is sometimes referred to as the Spanish Colonial Flag. There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. Spanish authorities used to confine state prisoners in the hole to the brimful without food and water and just sufficient air to prevent them from dying immediately. Rowe, John. Peru was the last territory in the continent under Spanish rule, which ended on 9 December 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho (Spanish rule continued until 1898 in Cuba and Puerto Rico). For the Spanish, these populations were there for their exploitation, to supply their own settlements with foodstuffs, but more importantly for the Spanish, to extract mineral wealth or produce another valuable commodity for Spanish enrichment. Although, they were living separately, they were similar in many ways, their religion, mode of dressing, houses, system of government and … The Conquest of Michoacán: The Spanish Domination of the Tarascan Kingdom in Western Mexico, 1521–1530. $25.00 shipping. Pope Alexander VI in a 4 May 1493 papal decree, Inter caetera, divided rights to lands in the Western Hemisphere between Spain and Portugal on the proviso that they spread Christianity. [121] We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … Spanish Colonial Period of time when the Spanish built settlements in Texas which included missions, towns, presidios, and ranches 1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established as a supply point between the Rio Grande and East Texas The Spanish period. [102] Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy. The loss of these territories ended Spanish rule in the Americas. By Kaitlin Petersen. The first Spanish settlement was established in 1598 in what is now Guinsiliban. Audiencias were a significant base of power and influence for American-born elites, starting in the late sixteenth century, with nearly a quarter of appointees being born in the Indies by 1687. Each and every period of its history is crucial in some way to understanding the present-day character of the land. Music of the philippines during pre spanish era 1. The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. "Blasco Núñez Vela" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. The Spanish did establish the settlement of Chile in 1541, founded by Pedro de Valdivia. barangay system during the pre-spanish era Before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the Philippines in the 16 th century, Barangay is used to be their form of government. Spanish colonization. The Philippine Economy During the Spanish Colonial Period. But the importation of horses transformed warfare for both the Spaniards and the indigenous. [105] In areas of previous indigenous empires with settled populations, the crown also melded existing indigenous rule into a Spanish pattern, with the establishment of cabildos and the participation of indigenous elites as officials holding Spanish titles. Merchants formed an important element in the Spanish population. In the following years, Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization. The last aspect of Spanish colonial society that I wanna point out is the racial caste system that developed in the New World. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . 3. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. Patterns set in this early period of exploration and colonization were to endure as Spain expanded further, even as the region became less important in the overseas empire after the conquests of Mexico and Peru.[18]. "[103] As with many colonial institutions, corregimiento had its roots in Castile when the Catholic Monarchs centralize power over municipalities. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. The rural regions remained highly indigenous, with little interface between the large numbers of indigenous and the small numbers of the República de Españoles, which included Blacks and mixed-race castas. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. "Nicolás de Ovando" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGóngora1998 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLagos_Carmona1985 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHistoria_general_de_España1992 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (. Cushner, Nicolas P. “Argentina: The Colonial Period” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. "Kurakas and commerce: a chapter in the evolution of Andean society." They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. Spaniards continued to expand their presence in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions. “Venezuela: The Colonial Era” in ‘’Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. 1682. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. The Franciscans arrived first in 1525 in a group of twelve, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. [35], Venezuela was first visited by Europeans during the 1490s, when Columbus was in control of the region, and the region as a source for indigenous slaves for Spaniards in Cuba and Hispaniola, since the Spanish destruction of the local indigenous population. The early literary forms of the Philippines were epics, legends, riddles and proverbs which were told and retold by the natives. Hispanic Research Journal 13, no. In Medieval times, however, they had experienced a history quite different from that of other southern Europeans. In an effort to solidify their control over North American resources and territory, European colonial powers began to construct fortifications to protect their … The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. He strongly influenced the formulation of colonial policy under the Catholic Monarchs, and was instrumental in establishing the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) (1503), which enabled crown control over trade and immigration. [51] In southern Chile and the pampas, the Araucanians (Mapuche) prevented further Spanish expansion. The Spaniards and Portuguese inhabit the Iberian peninsula, which forms the southwest portion of Europe. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to the United States. •A mission was a settlement set up in Indian Territory.Friars, or members of clergy who belong to religious groups, invited Indians to live at the missions. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. Among the foodstuffs that became staples in European cuisine and could be grown there were tomatoes, squashes, bell peppers, and to a lesser extent in Europe chili peppers; also nuts of various kinds: Walnuts, cashews, pecans, and peanuts. [94] Based in Castile, with the assignment of the governance of the Indies, it was thus responsible for drafting legislation, proposing the appointments to the King for civil government as well as ecclesiastical appointments, and pronouncing judicial sentences; as maximum authority in the overseas territories, the Council of the Indies took over both the institutions in the Indies as the defense of the interests of the Crown, the Catholic Church, and of indigenous peoples. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. [145], For the conquest of Mexico, a 2019 an eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. ... Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests, or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. - It is a ritual based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and offered her hand in marriage in anyone who can retrieve it. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. Even so, the Colonial Period (1492-1810) stands out as being the era that did the most to shape what Latin America is today. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. Spanish archives are full of exasperated colonial officials complaining about how such settlements were ‘all but abandoned’ in many cases after only a few weeks. In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. The crown aimed to prevent the formation of an aristocracy in the Indies not under crown control. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. In Mexico, the crown established the General Indian Court (Juzgado General de Indios), which heard disputes affecting individual indigenous as well as indigenous communities. The Spanish founded towns in the Caribbean, on Hispaniola and Cuba, on a pattern that became spatially similar throughout Spanish America. However, noblemen became defenders of the rights to land and water controlled by their communities. The royal official in charge of a district was the Corregidor, who was appointed by the viceroy, usually for a five-year term. Terraciano, Kevin. Expeditions continued into the 1540s and regional capitals founded by the 1550s. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernán Cortés received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. [102] This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.[99]. The United States took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. Two major factors affected the density of Spanish settlement in the long term. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. 1, pp. [150], The Mission was a 1996 film idealizing a Jesuit mission to the Guaraní in the territory disputed between Spain and Portugal. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the conquest of the Tarascans/Purépecha of Michoacan, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. Brown, Kendall W., "The Spanish Imperial Mercury Trade and the American Mining Expansion Under the Bourbon Monarchy," in, Van Ausdal, Shawn, and Robert W. Wilcox. Music of the philippines during pre spanish era 1. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). [66] The office of captain general involved to be the supreme military chief of the whole territory and he was responsible for recruiting and providing troops, the fortification of the territory, the supply and the shipbuilding. As was the case in peninsular Spain, Africans (negros) were able buy their freedom (horro), so that in most of the empire free Blacks and Mulatto (Black + Spanish) populations outnumbered slave populations. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Some aspects of the pre-colonial period have survived into our time. [151], The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All[152] and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. Francisco de Ibarra led an expedition from Zacatecas in northern New Spain, and founded Durango. Pre Colonial and Spanish era. The leader of an expedition, the adelantado was a senior with material wealth and standing who could persuade the crown to issue him a license for an expedition. On October 12, 1492, Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus made landfall in the Western Hemisphere.[12]. The Spanish colonial era. spain 2 real mexico potosi charles iv spanish colonial era lot 6 silver coins. "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqués del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, British America, and some small regions in South America and the Caribbean. 5, pp. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. • Spanish colonization in the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor- general in the Philippines. The Chichimeca in northern Mexico, the Comanche in the northern Great Plains and the Mapuche in southern Chile and the pampas of Argentina resisted Spanish conquest. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. False. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. Matthäus Merian, Dreyzehender Theil Americae, 1628. The officials of the royal treasury at each level of government typically included two to four positions: a tesorero (treasurer), the senior official who guarded money on hand and made payments; a contador (accountant or comptroller), who recorded income and payments, maintained records, and interpreted royal instructions; a factor, who guarded weapons and supplies belonging to the king, and disposed of tribute collected in the province; and a veedor (overseer), who was responsible for contacts with native inhabitants of the province, and collected the king's share of any war booty. $115.00. Spaniards spent over 25 years in the Caribbean where their initial high hopes of dazzling wealth gave way to continuing exploitation of disappearing indigenous populations, exhaustion of local gold mines, initiation of cane sugar cultivation as an export product, and importation of African slaves as a labor force. Stanford University Press, 2004. He arrived in March 1521 during his circumnavigation of the globe. [75] In Mexico, Don Martín Cortés, the son and legal heir of conqueror Hernán Cortés, and other heirs of encomiendas led a failed revolt against the crown. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. The Spaniards systematically attempted to transform structures of indigenous governance to those more closely resembling those of Spaniards, so the indigenous city-state became a Spanish town and the indigenous noblemen who ruled became officeholders of the town council (cabildo). Practice: Labor, slavery, and caste in the Spanish colonial system. The crown asserted is authority and sovereignty of the territory and vassals it claimed, collected taxes, maintained public order, meted out justice, and established policies for governance of large indigenous populations. Recognizing the significance of San Francisco Bay's vast harbor, Spain began to fortify the area with defensive struct… One in 1949 stars Frederic March as Columbus. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. The Taino population on Hispaniola went from hundreds of thousands or millions –- the estimates by scholars vary widely -- but in the mid-1490s, they were practically wiped out. Prominent Dominican friars in Santo Domingo, especially Antonio de Montesinos and Bartolomé de Las Casas denounced the maltreatment and pressed the crown to act to protect the indigenous populations. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. G. KARAGATAN - A poetic vehicle of socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. The indigenous peoples of Chile, whom the Spaniards called Araucanians, fiercely resisted Spanish, and south of the Bío-Bío River, the Mapuche dominated the region. [76], The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire. [148], The epic journey of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca has been portrayed in a 1991 feature-length Mexican film, Cabeza de Vaca. Colonial Culture. The Colonial Era. 25. • The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries. The loss of indigenous population had a direct impact on Spaniards as well, since increasingly they saw those populations as a source of their own wealth, disappearing before their eyes.[50]. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. The crown enacted Laws of Burgos (1513) and the Requerimiento to curb the power of the Spanish conquerors and give indigenous populations the opportunity to peacefully embrace Spanish authority and Christianity. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed the Indian Reductions with attempts of conversion to Catholicism. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square. Spanish was first introduced to the Philippines in 1565, when the conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebu. In Mexico, Bishop Juan de Zumárraga prosecuted and had executed in 1539 a Nahua lord, known as Don Carlos of Texcoco for apostasy and sedition for having converted to Christianity and then renounced his conversion and urged others to do so as well. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European recorded to have landed in the Philippines. INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. Cook, Noble David. $25.00 shipping. Equally important, rich deposits of the valuable metal silver. Dressing, J. David. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. After the 1550s, the crown increasingly favored the diocesan clergy over the religious orders. In the early period for Spaniards, formal ownership of land was less important than control of indigenous labor and receiving tribute. 0. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. They replicated the existing indigenous network of settlements, but added a port city. He also had to attract participants to the expedition who staked their own lives and meager fortunes on the expectation of the expedition’s success. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. $135.00. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. Treasury officials were supposed to be paid out of the income from the province, and were normally prohibited from engaging in income-producing activities.[70]. Though he was not the first explorer to set foot there, nor did he ever come to understand the dimensions of his discovery, it was Christopher Columbus who first published an account of his findings. On March 31, 1492, the Catholic Monarch ordered the expulsion of the Jews in Spain who refused to convert to Christianity. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the … Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. 2, p. 99. Unlike Spanish expansion in the Caribbean, which involved limited armed combat and sometimes the participation of indigenous allies, the conquest of central Mexico was protracted and necessitated indigenous allies who chose to participate for their own purposes. The Catholic Historical Review 64.2 (1978): 168-184. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. Philippine Literature Under Spanish Colonial 24. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. [155], For the independence era, the 2016 Bolivian-made film made about Mestiza independence leader Juana Azurduy de Padilla is part of the recent recognition of her role in the independence of Argentina and Bolivia. Review for Spanish Colonial Era Test. [71] Upon their failure to effectively protect the indigenous and following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Peru, more stringent laws to control conquerors' and settlers' exercise of power, especially their maltreatment of the indigenous populations, were promulgated, known as the New Laws (1542). This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. In Peru, Spaniards founded the city of Lima as their capital and its nearby port of Callao, rather than the high-altitude site of Cuzco, the center of Inca rule. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states. [140] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. After the collapse of the Taino population of Hispaniola, Spaniards took to slave raiding and settlement on nearby islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, replicating the demographic catastrophe there as well. The spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872. ", Weber, David J. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. [58] In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. Castaño, Victoria Ríos. The bishop challenged the Jesuits' continuing to hold Indian parishes and function as priests without the required royal licenses. [147] A major production in Mexico was the 1998 film, The Other Conquest, which focuses on a Nahua in the post-conquest era and the evangelization of central Mexico. MacIas, Rosario Marquez; MacÍas, Rosario Márquez (1995). The Spanish founded San Sebastián de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. Later conquests in Mexico were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. Saint Augustine, FL Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. On the death, unauthorized absence, retirement or removal of a governor, the treasury officials would jointly govern the province until a new governor appointed by the king could take up his duties. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. [61] To carry out the expedition (entrada), which entailed exploration, conquest, and initial settlement of the territory, the king, as sovereign, and the appointed leader of an expedition (adelantado) agreed to an itemized contract (capitulación), with the specifics of the conditions of the expedition in a particular territory. [citation needed] In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. Crown approval through the Council of the Indies was needed for the establishment of bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics. What best defines the Spanish Colonial Era? The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. Spanish conquerors holding grants of indigenous labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them. 4, p. 204. • Literature started to flourish during his time. $135.00. Muldoon, James. Literature started to flourish during his time. To feed urban populations and mining workforces, small-scale farms (ranchos), (estancias), and large-scale enterprises (haciendas) emerged to fill the demand, especially for foodstuffs that Spaniards wanted to eat, most especially wheat. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. During a financial crisis in the late seventeenth century, the crown began selling Audiencia appointments, and American-born Spaniards held 45% of Audiencia appointments. There are six things you need to know about the Colonial Era. Warren, J. These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. Latin America: the Colonial Era. Also cochineal is technically an animal product, the insects were placed on cacti and harvested by the hands of indigenous laborers. [143] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. Carillo This open-access book in Ayala Museum’s Filipinas Heritage Library Catalog contains thousands of recorded last names, written in the time of the Spanish Colonial era.Published in 1849, The Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos contains 141 pages of surnames with both Spanish and indigenous roots.. • The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries. The Spanish colonial period lasted much longer than the French (ranging from the mid-16th through early 19th centuries) and so there is a wider degree of stylistic change. Venezuela's historical development during the colonial period took place in six subregions. Their central official and ceremonial area was built on top of Aztec palaces and temples. spain 2 real mexico ferdinand vii spanish colonial era lot 5 silver coins. Ecuador Table of Contents. Spanish dominance reached all five of the then-known continents. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. His fall from power is viewed as an example of the weakening of the crown in the mid-seventeenth century since it failed to protect their duly appointed bishop. The jagged edges of the cross on the Spanish flag represent these trees with the branched lopped off. Viceroys were of high social standing, almost without exception born in Spain, and served fixed terms. House Tour: A Spanish Colonial Channels A Bygone Era. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. Comparing European and Native American cultures. Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. In areas of dense, stratified indigenous populations, especially Mesoamerica and the Andean region, Spanish conquerors awarded perpetual private grants of labor and tribute particular indigenous settlements, in encomienda were in a privileged position to accumulate private wealth. In the Huancavelica region, mercury continues to wreak ecological damage.[135][136][137]. In the colonial era, Spain initiated the Encomienda System, under which thousands of people and families were entrusted to colonial officials. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. • Literature started to flourish during his time. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, who sponsored Columbus' voyages to the New World, used the medieval flag with the red and gold quartered lions and castles, which represented the united Spain of Leon and Castile. Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. [110] Their functions were governing the respective municipalities, administering of justice and being appellate judges in the alcaldes menores' judgments,[111] but only the corregidor could preside over the cabildo. The Franciscans took over some former Jesuit missions and continued the expansion of areas incorporated into the empire. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. In 1898, the United States achieved victory in the Spanish–American War with Spain, ending the Spanish colonial era. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. The second factor was the disease. When European traders, in search for a new route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the … From decades of research, he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods. He was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a native chieftain, at the Battle of Mactan, where he died. [59], The politics of asserting royal authority to oppose Columbus resulted in the suppression of his privileges and the creation of territorial governance under royal authority. [7][8][9], One source claims the Spanish conquest was responsible for 1,400,000 to 2,300,000 deaths explicitly excluding tens of millions of deaths from New World disease;[10] while Rudolph Rummel claims that 2 to 15 million indigenous peoples where killed by what he calls "democide"-(government caused murder) in the colonization of the Americas mostly in Latin America[11]-(mostly implying anywhere from just over half to all but 1 so around 1,000,001 to 14,999,999 deaths.). Although their primary focus was on religious conversion, missionaries served as "diplomatic agents, peace emissaries to hostile tribes ... and they were also expected to hold the line against nomadic nonmissionary Indians as well as other European powers. The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. There are six things you need to know about the Colonial Era. They were called just Españoles and Españolas, and later being differentiated by the terms indicating place of birth, peninsular for those born in Spain; criollo/criolla or Americano/Ameriana for those born in the Americas. The missions were managed by friars from the order of St. Francis – the Franciscans — and were placed in lands that had been home to Native Americans for … The consequences of this contact created profound global change. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. The New Laws of 1542 were the result, limiting the power of encomenderos, the private holders of grants to indigenous labor previously held in perpetuity. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. History of the Philippines (1565–1898) The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898. [138] With only a small labor force to draw on, ranching was an ideal economic activity for some regions. [3][4] [5][6][1] This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. In Mexico, refining took place in haciendas de minas, where silver ore was refined into pure silver by amalgamation with mercury in what was known as the patio process. They preferred wheat cultivation to indigenous sources of carbohydrates: casava, maize (corn), and potatoes, initially importing seeds from Europe and planting in areas where plow agriculture could be utilized, such as the Mexican Bajío. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. 1531); Guadalajara (1531-42); Valladolid (now Morelia), (1529-41); Antequera (now Oaxaca(1525-29); Campeche (1541); and Mérida. White was the distinctive color of French Royalty, and Burgundy was a French state. During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. According to the French historian Jean Dumont The Valladolid debate was a major turning point in world history “In that moment in Spain appeared the dawn of the human rights”. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. A central plaza had the most important buildings on the four sides, especially buildings for royal officials and the main church. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. African slaves were imported to Spanish territories, although in lesser numbers than in English and Portuguese territories. In the eighteenth-century reforms, the Viceroyalty of Peru was reorganized, splitting off portions to form the Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia) (1739) and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina) (1776), leaving Peru with jurisdiction over Peru, Charcas, and Chile. Columbus had promised that the region he now controlled held a huge treasure in the form of gold and spices. [53] The crown sought to establish and maintain control over its overseas possessions through a complex, hierarchical bureaucracy, which in many ways was decentralized. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. The Audiencias were initially constituted by the crown as a key administrative institution with royal authority and loyalty to the crown as opposed to conquerors and first settlers. The empire in the Indies was a newly established dependency of the kingdom of Castile alone, so crown power was not impeded by any existing cortes (i.e. 87-88. During the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines most of the archipelago underwent a … Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964. This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. Philippine pre-colonial society is both different and the same as in the present. During the Napoleonic Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. Borah, Woodrow. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction[1] and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. [106] They were in charge of distributing land to the neighbors, establishing local taxes, dealing with the public order, inspecting jails and hospitals, preserving the roads and public works such as irrigation ditchs and bridges, supervising the public health, regulating the festive activities, monitoring market prices, or the protection of Indians. $25.00 shipping. Era in Texas History characterized by the building of missions to confirm Spanish land claims. As Spain's power spread to the New World and across the Pacific to the Philippines, this was the flag carried by her ships and flown over the fortresses which guarded her possessions. The protection of the indigenous populations from enslavement and exploitation by Spanish settlers were established in the Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513. However, the Spanish Empire could not have ruled these vast territories and dense indigenous populations without utilizing the existing indigenous political and economic structures at the local level. [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. The Spaniards ruled the Philippines for 300 years under these conditions, continually harassed by Chinese pirates, by the Moros (Mohammedans from Mindanao and Sulu), by the Dutch and the English who wanted to take possession of the Islands, and finally by the frequent revolts on the part of the natives. It was translated quickly to English and became the basis for the anti-Spanish writings, collectively known as the Black Legend. Natural Texas and It's People Era. 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