enhalus acoroides characteristics

2004, Green EP, 361 1 634, 279–286. Bull. 303, 97–114. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222020. Female flower composed of a peduncle 50 cm long which will coil and contract after anthesis, hairy bracts size 4–6 × 1–2 cm, reddish sepals, white strap-shaped petals about 4–5 cm × 3–4 mm with papillose, ovoid ovary with long hairs. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2001.037004453.x, McMillan, C. (1984). Limnol. “Eutrophication: challenges and solutions,” in Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences And Control, eds A. Ansari and S. Gill (Dordrecht: Springer), 1–15. Acad. For example, while nutrient enrichment often has an effect on seagrass tissue nutrient content (e.g., Ontoria et al., 2019; Viana et al., in prep), it does not always have a significant effect on leaf length, leaf width and seagrass production, as has been shown in Thalassia testudinum (Heck et al., 2000). Pharmacognostic and physicochemical standards are two important approaches to quality control for medicinal plants. Bull. 2015, Wuthidhammvej W 1994; Further study of seedling and adult plant traits of other tropical seagrass species is important to filling gaps of knowledge of tropical seagrass ecology and future consequences of environmental change on this critical ecosystem. Seed nutrient content and nutritional status of Posidonia oceanica seedlings in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The decrease of the seagrass area is influenced by the simultaneous occurrence of many factors at the local and global scale, including nutrient enrichment and climate change. , author. Change Biol. doi: 10.3354/meps08104. Pollut. Oikos 128, 64–76. Mar. Analytical column HPLC, Phenomenex (Kinetex C18, 100x4.6 mm, 2.6 mm) was used. While climate change has not yet significantly impacted seagrass areas in Indonesia (Unsworth et al., 2018), it is essential to take in consideration that tropical seagrasses are growing closer to their photosynthetic and physiological limits in comparison to temperate seagrasses, making them highly vulnerable to rising temperature thresholds caused by climate warming (Tewksbury et al., 2008). The morphology of E. acoroidesis fairly characteristic. 18, 1491–1498. Impacts of temperature and nutrients on coastal lagoon plant communities. (2018). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Weitzman, J. S., Zeller, R. B., Thomas, F. I. M., and Koseff, J. R. (2015). Marine angiosperms could inevitably offer considerable potential resources for their fiber, yet little research has been conducted, especially in Malaysia. (1997). Consumers mitigate heat stress and nutrient enrichment effects on eelgrass Zostera marina communities at its southern range limit. Subordinate Taxa. Mar. Sci. The ability of seeds to germinate and remain attached to ever-changing sediments within the marine environment is a critical factor in the establishment of new populations and the ongoing survival of pre-existing genetically diverse populations. leaves. Descriptions of the habitat characteristics of the species are provided, as well as considerations of their biogeography and the possible influence of temperature as a factor controlling their distribution. Chemical identification were done by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (1999). doi: 10.1111/rec.12072, Teichberg, M., Wild, C., Bednarz, V. N., Kegler, H. F., Lukman, M., Gärdes, A. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Larkum AWD, Biol. The attenuation of current- and wave-driven flow within submerged multispecific vegetative canopies. (Figure 4). In this way, E. acoroides seedlings have common features with other persistent species such as Posidonia sp., as seeds are bigger in size compared to other fast-growing species (Orth et al., 2007). 1989. Characteristics of Coastal Ecosystems. Implications of nutrient enrichment for the conservation and management of seagrass Zostera muelleri meadows. This result showed that most components of E. acoroides rhizome were soluble in water which corresponded with previous literature reports. Factors influencing the growth of seagrass seedlings: a case study of Posidonia australis. While morphological and fluorescence measurements were individually performed on the three seedlings, the nutrient content was analyzed in the pooled material of the three seedlings from each aquarium. Effect of seagrass on current speed: importance of flexibility vs. shoot density. The rhizome is black and clothed with numerous black fibrous strands of decayed leaves and roots. Policy Sust. 22 Enhalus acoroides are still a food source for coastal popula-tions [2], whereas the rhizomes of Cymodocea spp. To summarize, this dissertation demonstrates that variability in light per se explains most of the variation in several aspects in the growth characteristics of Enhalus acoroides. Water temperature was controlled in each ET by using heaters (EHEIM) connected to an individual electronic system that was continuously regulating the temperature of the water bath by digital controllers and individual temperature probes (±0.2°C). 32 71, 179–197. This study aims to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical trait responses of the seedling stage of E. acoroides to increased temperature and nutrient enrichment. –7, Alam K, The respective bottles were weighed after cooling to room temperature and were reheated until two consecutive weights did not differ by more than 5 mg. Bot. Ontoria, Y., Gonzalez-Guedes, E., Sanmartì, N., Bernardeau-Esteller, J., Ruiz, J. M., Romero, J., et al. We express our sincere thanks to Dr. Sutthira Sedlak, the botanist of Walairukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University for plant identification and Mr. Adrian Roderick Plant, Mahasarakham University for English improvement. characteristics on seagrass transplantation success. E. acoroides is the largest of seagrasses and is very distinctive and unlikely to be confused with any other species. Water constantly overflowed from the aquaria to the water bath of the ETs ensuring water renewal. Oceanogr. Effects of temperature and salinity on Ruppia sinensis seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth. The present paper is part of the project SEAMAC [Seagrass and macroalgal community dynamics and performance under environmental change funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG; TE 1046/3-1)] awarded to MT. The effects of air exposure on the desiccation rate and photosynthetic activity of Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides. Limnol. Apigenin (1 mg/mL in ethanol) and luteolin (1 mg/mL in methanol) were used as the reference substances. doi: 10.1126/science.1159328, Todgham, A. E., and Stillman, J. H. (2013). But if elevated temperature rises above a threshold, or persist for longer periods of time, effects could be detrimental and result in community structure damages by causing impacts on seagrass metabolism and nutrient uptake ability (Lee et al., 2007; Moore and Short, 2007; Collier and Waycott, 2014). This indicates that E. acoroides is a species possessing the capabilities to uptake metals from sediment.26, The percentage water soluble extractive of E. acoroides was obtained the highest amount. Mar. Fluorescence parameters were not influenced by any of the water treatments. Such effects could also be positive in recently germinated seeds, such as the ones used in our study. Bangkok: J. Limnol. Anisaldehyde was purchased from Panreacquimica, Spain. Transparent PVC lids were placed on each ET to reduce water evaporation. Submerged aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes. Antifeedant, antibacterial and antilarval compounds from the South China Sea seagrass Enhalus acoroides. Although the abundance of these other microorganisms could not be quantified, they were observable by naked eye and could be felt as a slimy layer on the aquaria and some seagrass leaves. Essential Oil and Anatomical Study of Flowers Solidago caucasica Kem.-Nath. Seagrass meadows are declining globally. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2003.11.005, Jassby, A. D., and Platt, T. (1976). There were no signs of seedling mortality nor stress response during the experiment under any of the treatments. Seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) seedlings in a high-CO2 world: from physiology to herbivory. 350, 144–175. Bot. , authors. A Halodule-dominated community in a subtropical embayment: physical environment, productivity, biomass, and impact of dugong grazing. Seed height and biomass were not significantly affected by any of the treatments (Tables 2, 4). Light is more important than nutrient ratios of fertilization for Cymodocea nodosa seedling development. Different factors including environment, availability of phosphate and its balance with nitrogen, seedling's age, or the seed size have been discussed as the reason for the variability of responses (Balestri et al., 2009; Delefosse et al., 2016; Alexandre et al., 2018). E. acoroides. This information would help in future management plans and recovery. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.01.049, Pereda-Briones, L., Tomas, F., and Terrados, J. Moore, K. A., and Short, F. T. (2007). Rumbaoa RGO (2019). Seedling growth rate measurements were done using the leaf marking method (Short and Duarte, 2001). doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(86)90062-8, Campbell, J. E., Altieri, A. H., Johnston, L. N., Kuempel, C. D., Paperno, R., Paul, V. J., et al. Regional losses may be even higher in the tropics, such as in Indonesia, where 75% loss has been reported in the last 5 years (Unsworth et al., 2018). Tropical habitats and their associated environmental characteristics play a critical role in shaping macroinvertebrate communities. However, the main limitation of seedling establishment programs is the low seedling survival rate observed due to unsuitability of environmental conditions (Ambo-Rappe et al., 2019). 1997, Tiyaworanant S, The optical cable of the PAM was attached with leaf clips to the second leaf of the seedling, above the meristem, and at 3 mm distance from the tissue. The percentage of acid insoluble ash was then calculated. In this study, we characterized the complete chloroplast genome sequence of this species. doi: 10.4319/lo.2000.45.5.1041. 2008; and Berberis thomsoniana C.K. Effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination and seedling establishment in the endangered seagrass Zostera japonica Asch. ... (enhalus acoroides) plants. Methods of Seawater Analysis. Therefore, the different treatments effectively changed trophic conditions within aquaria, as indicated by the increased Chl-a and Chl-b concentrations, as well as other algal blooms which were observed in the high nutrient treatments. It is possible that seedlings in this study were still within their thermal niche, as adult E. acoroides plants grow naturally in seawater within a temperature range of 24 to 33°C (Agawin et al., 2001). Seagrass in the South China Sea. Ser. The HPLC chromatogram of E. acoroides was shown in the Figure 6. Seedlings, with 3 levels of sizes, were evenly distributed between aquaria (Figure 1B). Growth and population dynamics of Posidonia oceanica on the Spanish mediterranean coast: elucidating seagrass decline. Med. It also participants in nutrient cycling processes and acts as a stabilizing agent in coastal sedimentation and erosion processes.5-7 The seeds of E. acoroides have been traditionally eaten in the Philippines. They are key ecosystem engineers and the only submerged marine species with both above- (AG) and below-ground (BG) tissues that sustain multiple ecosystem services and functions. Biol. doi: 10.3354/meps225177, Bulthuis, D. A. Direct effects occur through stability of physiological mechanisms (Burkholder et al., 1992; Bird et al., 1998; Brun et al., 2002; Invers et al., 2004; Touchette and Burkholder, 2007) causing increased nutrient uptake ability (Viana et al., 2019), nutrient imbalance (Li et al., 2019), changes in morphological indices (Mvungi and Pillay, 2019), changes in growth (Terrados et al., 1999a), changes in sexual reproduction (Duarte et al., 1997), or direct ammonium toxicity (Van Katwijk et al., 1997). Therapeutic values and the chemical compounds found in crude drug materials are usually variable and depend on many factors. Seagrass communities are highly productive and dynamic ecosystems. Aust. 65 Enhanced growth under sub-lethal temperatures at the seedling phase could improve the resilience capacity of E. acoroides under natural heat stress processes or in restoration attempts. 66 The combined treatments, therefore, can be considered additive, in which nutrient effects were generally lacking and did not add further to the temperature effect. The dried rhizomes of E. acoroides from each sample (1000 g) were kept in air tight containers until used. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00194-5. Glob. This return needs several adaptations that allow them to live in submerged ocean regions. Palanuvej C, The silica crucibles were then cooled in a desiccator and weighed. Date revision received: 05 September 2018. While it seems that seedlings of some opportunistic species, namely C. nodosa or Amphibolis antarctica, take nutrients from the water (Paling and McComb, 1994; Alexandre et al., 2018), other studies show that seagrass seedlings in some other species, including Posidonia oceanica, use internal resources on the early stages of development (Balestri et al., 2009). About 2.0 g of E. acoroides rhizome powder was accurately weighed in previously dried, tared silica crucibles and incinerated in a muffle furnace by gradually increasing the temperature to 450ºC until a white carbon free ash was formed. , authors. , editors. , editors. Glob. Despite their global significance the attention paid to seagrass meadows is much lower than other coastal ecosystems (Cullen-Unsworth et al., 2014). It is a perennial plant with underground stems (rhizomes). Biol. Estuar. The 250 g of dried rhizome of E. acoroides were spread on white, clean muslin cloth. The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Nat. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.05.034, Touchette, B. W., Burkholder, J. M., and Glasgow, H. B. Jr. (2003). The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Enhalus . 350, 3–20. This finding is interesting in the context of climate change, specifically with respect to possible pole-wards migration. This study was fully funded by the agricultural research development agency (public organization) grant number 984–3–58874–6. Therefore, C:N ratio of leaves showed no significant differences, while C:N ratio in seeds and roots were the highest under the high temperature and low nutrient treatment (Table 3). Seed size also had an effect on almost all biomass traits, BG:seed ratio and number of leaves (Table 4). New Phytol. 40, 497–500. General Information; Symbol: ... Enhalus Rich. Short FT doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2014.09.003, González-Ortiz, V., Egea, L. G., Jiménez-Ramos, R., Moreno-Marín, F., Pérez-Lloréns, J. L., Bouma, T. J., et al. Two gram of E. acoroides was extracted with 25 mL of 80% ethanol in ultrasonic bath for 30 min and filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before injection to HPLC. The combined impacts of rising temperature and increased nutrient loading has been studied in adult species of Zostera spp. 260, 217–239. (2018). Variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) morphology and internal nutrient composition as influenced by increased temperature and water column nitrate. Ecol. From the data of the RLC, several parameters were calculated. Biol. Additionally, we showed that increased nutrient inputs may play a less important role in seedling growth response during its initial growth phase, due to internal nutrient reserves in the seed. J. Exp. Trophic response of fishes to habitat variability in coastal seagrass systems. Pigments were extracted from the filters in 8 ml of 96% ethanol in glass vials placed for 5 min at 80°C and subsequently placed in a rotor at room temperature in the dark for approximately 24 h. Extracts were subsequently centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 20 min. Seagrass responses to changes in nutrient and temperature conditions can be measured by changes in their trait values which are often used as indicators of environmental stress in coastal management. –8, Liang YZ, The opposite effect of rising temperatures between our study and other studies could be due to different reasons, such as the inter-species differences to responses to temperature changes. Mar. Plymouth: PRIMER-E. Artika, S. R., Kneer, D., Ambo-Rappe, R., Syahid, S., and Teichberg, M. (2019). The fate of marine autotrophic production. Two solutions, daucosterol standard (1 mg/mL in ethanol) and dichloromethane extract of E. acoroides were applied to the plate. The TLC chromatogram of E. acoroides detected by anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid spray reagent showed 5 spots including three blue spots, dark purple spot and brick red spot at hRf 2–5, 7–8, 20–21, 50–52 and 53–56, respectively. Bot. Artificial seawater was individually supplied to aquaria (n = 24) from reservoirs with either high nutrient (dot boxes/circle) or low nutrient artificial seawater (strip boxes/circle) using a peristaltic pump. (2012). July p. 565 doi: 10.3354/meps071085, Hernán, G., Castejón, I., Terrados, J., and Tomas, F. (2019). Xie P, The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. In the gulf of Thailand, it grows on coarse substrate ranging from medium and coarse sand to coral rubble at a depth of 0.5–1.0 m.4, Many studies have shown the benefits of E. acoroides. Table 2. The distribution of tropical seagrasses with relation to their tolerance of high temperatures. The total number of flowers was higher in plot B than in plot A, and the sex ratio was more stable monthly in the continuous plot B (1.271–2.802) than in the patchy plot A (0.902–4.907; Figure 5 ). Heavy metal pollution is one of serious problem for tropical mangrove ecosystem. Quality control of herbal medicines. Fertile plants with male and female flowers or fruits are found throughout the year. The active ingredients, apigenin and luteolin appeared at retention time of 49.35 and 45.83 min, respectively. Commun. Ocean Coast Manag. Where Fm' is the light adapted maximum fluorescence and F' the fluorescence yield at a particular light level. Aquat. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Biology of seagrasses: a treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australasian region 1977, The United Nations environment programme (UNEP) Chawalit M, This nutrient increment exceeds the nutrient cycling capacity of the system, increasing the organic carbon supply, and ultimately leading to eutrophication processes that are characterized by algal blooms, epiphyte growth, anoxic conditions in the sediments and, eventually, biodiversity loss and seagrass death (Lee et al., 2006; Khan and Mohammad, 2014). For more information, see copyright section in articles. 1258 These physiological experiments are also needed in order to make predictions about seagrass resilience or tolerance to future climate scenarios. , authors. O.A. Actually, while rETRmax values for adult E. acoroides individuals fall within 45–200 μmol e− m−2 s−1 (Jiang et al., 2014; Moreira-Saporiti et al., in prep) values in our study are 3- to 8-fold lower (Figure 3). Total ash and acid-insoluble ash value can indicate adulteration of the presence of impurities.25 Total ash is also correlated with physiological ash of medicinal plants. (2019). 23, 4530–4543. Seagrasses are not true grasses but rooted vascular (flowering) plants of terrestrial origin that have successfully returned to the sea. At the same time, ETs were drained of the surplus water flowing out of the aquaria. 31, 149–163. Pollut. Aquat Bot. The effects of nutrient enrichment depend on species-specific features, such as nutrient uptake capacity, the level of nutrient surplus that can vary from moderate to severe, and on local physical conditions, such as currents and tides. Ser. Water samples were taken every week from the two water reservoirs and random aquaria of each treatment (n = 4 each week) for DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, NH4+, NOx- and NO2-); silicate and phosphate. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-041911-111611, Duarte, C. M. (1991). 65, 175–197. As long as the temperature is not increased above the thermal tolerance of the species in question, higher physiological performance in terms of growth and photosynthesis are more probable. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104949. 361, 93–109. Ongpipattanakul B, ex Steud. Many chemical constituents; luteolin, apigenin, luteolin glycosides, stigmasterol, daucosterol have been reported. Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses. Oecologia 189, 719–732. J Plant Res. Where Fm is the maximum dark-adapted fluorescence and Fo is the minimum dark-adapted fluorescence. Bangkok: (2008). Ecol. To participate, please send email to publishing@phcog.net, C/o Phcog.Net # 17, Buddha Vihar Road Cox Town, Bangalore 560 005, INDIA, P  : +91-80-48666128 E  : publishing@phcog.net W : www.phcog.net. Effects of sediment nutrients on seagrasses: literature review and mesocosm experiment. 321 doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.02.003, Diaz-Almela, E., Marbà, N., and Duarte, C. M. (2007). doi: 10.1038/ngeo1477, Genty, B., Briantais, J. M., and Baker, N. R. (1989). doi: 10.1111/oik.05452, Jiménez-Ramos, R., Egea, L. G., Ortega, M. J., Hernández, I., Vergara, J. J., and Brun, F. G. (2017). Microscopical studies indicated the presence of vessels, fiber, parenchyma cells, sclereids, tracheids and trichomes. Moreover, the former rely mainly on external nutrient concentrations for growth (Viana et al., 2019), contrary to recently germinated seedlings which can use resources stored in the seed (Balestri et al., 2009). Putting the heat on tropical animals. Seed-seedling conflicts, habitat choice, and patterns of plant recruitment. Marbà, N., Duarte, C. M., Cebrián, J., Gallegos, M. E., Olesen, B., and Sand-Jensen, K. (1996). The present study provides useful information for standardization and characterization of E. acoroides in the market. The salinity, pH and silicate values were constant across all treatments. Human Ecol. (1986). Aquat. Glob. Ecol. In contrast, %N of the seeds and roots was significantly lower in the high-temperature treatments, but did not change in leaves. The interaction between stressors is now viewed as a crucial issue, and it is suggested that single-factor experiments are not adequate for assessing the effects of several disturbances on coastal marine ecosystems (Wernberg et al., 2012; Todgham and Stillman, 2013; Ontoria et al., 2019). Subjects 990, 87–92. Biochem. , author. muscle pains, wounds and stomach problems where pharmacognostical studies are lacking. 1984; 1980, Montaño NME, Economic assessment of ecosystem services: monetary value of seagrass meadows for coastal fisheries. Different cell components i.e. A Triterpene and a Depside from Parmotrema austrocetratum Elix and J. Johnst. In fact, some of the concentrations measured were not included in the analysis as they were below the quantification limit. Ser. 106, 401–412. & Graebn. Hook. Marcel Dek-ker; Copyright statement: Copyright © 2018 Phcog.Net. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate pharmacognostical parameters of the E. acoroides including macroscopic, microscopic and physicochemical properties to establish a standard for quality control of crude drug of E. acoroides. This is of importance when studying the resilience capacity of this species and when restoration attempts are planned, as a faster root development would provide a faster stabilization in the sediment and the survival of the whole plant. 53 Biol. doi: 10.1002/lno.10789, Mvungi, E. F., and Pillay, D. (2019). Bull. Physiological responses to shifts in multiple environmental stressors: relevance in a changing world. doi: 10.3354/meps11717, Delefosse, M., Povidisa, K., Poncet, D., Kristensen, E., and Olesen, B. Additionally, climate change not only will bring higher average temperatures but also more frequent and adverse events, such as heat waves, that might affect seagrass seedlings differently than smaller increments of higher constant temperature exposure (Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2017). Variations in seedling traits due to temperature and nutrients might have an influence in their functions, and therefore in a number of seagrass ecosystem services, as has been observed to happen with other stressors (Hernán et al., 2016, 2017). monospecies of Enhalus acoroides; whereas, in Bonetambung Island has multi-species and dominated by Enhalus acoroides. On the contrary, nutrient responses of seedlings were practically absent, suggesting they could rely on internal reserves. *Correspondence: Rohani Ambo-Rappe, rohani.amborappe@gmail.com, Front. Herbal encyclopedia and a theory of Thai traditional pharmacy. We found three typical characteristics of dugong grazing scars on Enhalus acoroides leaves. 137, 203–213. Thoithi GN Air pumps were placed in each aquarium to ensure water aeration and mixing by moving water from the bottom to the top. Seagrass meadows also help to mitigate climate change by the capture and storage of organic carbon (“blue carbon”), reducing CO2 concentrations in seawater (Fourqurean et al., 2012; Macreadie et al., 2019). Berkeley: Bot. With the exception of biomass traits, we found that initial seed size did not matter in seedling physiological responses, growth and photosynthetic parameters. The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. 388, 99–109. Mar. Table 4. den Hartog are the first published for the state of Western Australia. Indic. Fiber characteristics of five species of seagrass - Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, and Halophila spinulosa - were evaluated. A., et al. Water samples were sampled with a syringe, immediately filtered (0.45 μm pore size) in pre-rinsed polyethylene bottles and frozen (−20°C). The estuary in the coastal ecosystem of this mud is in the estuary, commonly called the monsoon estuary. Berlin: doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-033953, Heck, K. L. Jr, Pennock, J. R., Valentine, J. F., Coen, L. D., and Sklenar, S. A. Ammonium toxicity in eelgrass Zostera marina. Ecol. Otherwise, interactive effects were observed when temperature was combined with other nutrient sources such as labile organic C in the sediment in C. nodosa (Ontoria et al., 2019). Moore, K. A., and Wetzel, R. L. (2000). This has been previously observed in temperate seagrass seedlings under different stressors, such as CO2 enrichment, invasive algae or temperature (Hernán et al., 2016; Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2017; Pereda-Briones et al., 2019). Marine biodiversity and ecosystem services: an elusive link. Leaf traits showed the greatest differences relative to root traits, especially under different temperature treatments (Table 4). doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.032, Unsworth, R. K., Ambo-Rappe, R., Jones, B. L., La Nafie, Y. The photoperiod of the fluorescent lights was 12:12 h light:dark cycle. Macroalgal blooms contribute to the decline of seagrass in nutrient-enriched coastal waters. Mar. One seedling of each size was distributed in each aquarium, making a total of three seedlings per aquarium. Our results are in line with previous studies which did not observe interactive effects of both factors on adult temperate seagrass plants (Touchette and Burkholder, 2002; Kaldy, 2014; Moreno-Marín et al., 2018; Mvungi and Pillay, 2019; Ontoria et al., 2019) and tropical seagrass plants (Viana et al., in prep). Enhalus acoroides is a large and common species in tropical segrass beds and contributes significantly to total seagrass biomass. Ruangrungsi N Although nutrient effects may be considered as positive on seagrass individual traits, many studies of nutrient enrichment on seagrasses address the negative indirect effects of eutrophication. It flowers quite regularly, producing large female flowers on long stalks that develop into a furry fruit. In this way, laboratory experiments under controlled conditions might help to isolate the effects on plant trait variability of single and multiple stressors. Plant Sci. Impacts of temperature increase can be detected at the plant level and have been found to benefit the growth, biomass (Masini et al., 2001), flowering (Diaz-Almela et al., 2007), or photosynthetic rates (Campbell et al., 2006) of several seagrass species. Water samples were collected at 1 m depth in opaque bottles for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP). Macroscopical and microscopical study and chemical identification by TLC and HPLC analysis of all samples collected from 19 traditional drug stores were compared to authentic samples and all were found to be similar. Environ. Mesocarp Water Extract for Herbal Tea, Chemicals and Bioactivity Discrimination of Syconia of Seven Varieties of Ficus deltoidea Jack via ATR-IR Spectroscopic-Based Metabolomics, Antimicrobial Screening of Medicinal Plants Popularly used in Mato Grosso for Treating Infections: Advances on the Evaluation of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist in vitro and in vivo Antibacterial Activities, Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Berberis aristata DC. Nevertheless, enhanced leaf elongation and AG:BG ratio, plus evidence of former studies for persistent seagrasses and the seed features of E. acoroides suggest that it is very likely that the seedlings in this study rely primarily on nutrient reserves in the seeds. Future warmer seas: increased stress and susceptibility to grazing in seedlings of a marine habitat-forming species. Microscope examination of dried rhizome powders of E. acoroides revealed the major components to be vessels, fiber, parenchyma cells, sclereids, tracheid and trichome. In this study, the eutrophic conditions in the high nutrient treatment aquaria are confirmed by the enhanced microalgae growth and the significant effect on some adult seagrass biochemical traits, including higher leaf nitrogen, free amino acid content or enhanced leaf SA (Viana et al., in prep). The seedlings of Zostera japonica, for example, survived up to 29°C, but died at temperatures above 30°C in a temperature tolerance study (Abe et al., 2009). Pollut. Zhang S, 65, 123–139. Biol. 287 leaves are the biggest with 300 - 2000 mm long and 12 - 20 mm wide, followed by . Figure 2. The spectral characteristics of Landsat TM bands 1, 2 and 3 were examined over identified seagrass area in the South China Sea ... (Japar Sidik, 1999). Togean Tojo Una-Una Biosphere Reserve is located in the centre of the world’s coral reef triangle, which has the highest diversity of coral species in the world. The bottles were placed in an air oven, maintained at 105 ± 2ºC, for 2 h. The bottles were then removed, covered and placed in a desiccator. , authors. Global seagrass distribution and diversity: a bioregional model. 250, 117–131. Conser. Mar. [1] Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, THAILAND. Ecol. Assessing patterns of diversity over space and time and investigating the factors that control and generate those patterns is critical for conservation efforts. www.eFloras.org [database on the Internet]. 81, 163–178. Nutrient limitation of the tropical seagrass Enhalus acoroides (L.) royle in cape Bolinao, NW Philippines. 7 (2001). (2001). Combining morphological, biochemical, physiological, and life history traits allowed us to better understand the effects of environmental stressors on ecological functioning and survival of seedlings, and the influence on future seagrass community dynamics. AM-S ran the statistical analysis. The percent total ash content was then calculated. Environ. “Methods for the measurement of seagrass growth and production,” in Global Seagrass Research Methods, eds F. T. Short and R. G. Coles (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science SV), 155–198. Maven H, PLoS ONE 14:e0210386. (2019). Kuo J No photoinhibition was observed under any of the treatments as shown by the RLCs (Figure 3). Rapid light curves. Prog. (11): Geosci. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. R package version 2.5-4. Responses of very shallow marine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. (2): Biochemical and physiological traits (mean ± SE, n = 6) of Enhalus acoroides seedlings in the four different temperature (Temp) and nutrient treatments at the end of the experiment. Inhibitory Actions of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. 40, 363–377. Ecol. –4, Iwashina T University of California Press; 53, 539–544. The percent loss on drying was then calculated. 13, 224–235. Bot. , authors. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183256, Kaldy, J. E. (2014). Coat. J. Exp. Ecol. The lowest concentrations of sucrose in seeds were observed in the high temperature treatments, while starch concentration in the seeds was the lowest in the high temperature and high nutrient treatment and the highest in the low temperature and high nutrient treatment. J. Bot. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4165(89)80016-9, Glasby, T. M., Taylor, S. L., and Housefield, G. P. (2014). 134, 160–165. Aquat. Spectral Characteristics of Seagrass with Landsat TM in Northern Sabah Coastline, Malaysia . Sci. –23, McRoy CP, Limnol. (1): However, this energy budget allocation pattern might be a limiting factor because root development is key when establishing and maintaining a seagrass meadow. Native Introduced Native and Introduced In addition to being a critical stage (Ambo-Rappe and Yasir, 2015) for further seagrass development, the seedling stage response to climate change and nutrient enrichment has been little studied compared to adult seagrasses (Touchette and Burkholder, 2002; Kaldy, 2014; Moreno-Marín et al., 2018; Mvungi and Pillay, 2019; Ontoria et al., 2019). J. Exp. Limnol. Phytochemistry. The effect of temperature on the survival, growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of young seedlings of eelgrass Zostera marina L. Aquaculture 350–353, 98–108. The roots grow out of the rhizome. p. 1 Agua T, The Philippines are situated at the centre of the E. acoroides range, Yaeyama and Hainan are peripheral populations, and the Yaeyama population is at the northern limit of the species range. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.016, Lee, S. Y., Dunn, R. J. K., Young, R. A., Connolly, R. M., Dale, P. E. R., Dehayr, R., et al. The filter papers along with the residues were placed in silica crucibles and ignited in a muffle furnace, at 500°C for 1 h. The crucibles were cooled and weighed to a constant weight. 9:768. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00768, Ambo-Rappe, R. (2014). J. Exp. The distance components of a mixture travelled were quantified using retention factors.20. To achieve these aims, a laboratory experiment of combined temperature and nutrient treatments was conducted using recently-germinated seedlings of E. acoroides. Therefore, the study of seedling trait responses under different environmental conditions, such as temperature or nutrient enrichment, on this early-life phase may enhance future restoration and conservation management plans of these threatened ecosystems. (1996). 113 doi: 10.1016/S0304-3770(99)00039-X, Tewksbury, J. J., Huey, R. B., and Deutsch, C. A. Rev Bras Farmacogn. (1999a). Many tropical species ranges are moving to higher latitudes as average water temperatures rise. Risk Assess. Change Biol. Articles, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain. Mwangi JW, Seagrass depth limits. 2014, Qi SH, Although much information about E. acoroides has been reported, pharmacognostical studies are lacking. Leasa M The results in this study also showed that the initial seed size matters for morphological responses. (2013). 2005; The results showed that the seedlings were tolerant to an extended exposure to the current ambient maximum temperature. This implies that initial seedling development is not light or nutrient limited. (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2015.07.004. The procedures was similar to that used for ethanol extraction except that chloroform water was used instead of ethanol. The agricultural co-operative federation of Thailand; Inorganic nutrient supplements constrain restoration potential of seedlings of the seagrass, Posidonia australis. Mar. Selection of multiple seagrass indicators for environmental biomonitoring. HPLC fingerprint showed typical characteristic for identification of E. acoroides. We can be confident that all samples used in this study were rhizomes of E. acoroides. Tropical systems are oligotrophic and naturally nutrient limited; therefore, even small amounts of nutrient additions might rapidly increase competence among primary producers. doi: 10.1080/00139157.2013.785864, Cullen-Unsworth, L. C., Nordlund, L. M., Paddock, J., Baker, S., McKenzie, L. J., and Unsworth, R. K. (2014). Pollut. The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone. Chl-a concentrations in the water column were higher in the high nutrient treatments (2.6–5.9 μg l−1) than in the low nutrient treatments (2–2.1 μg l−1) and significantly higher in the high temperature and high nutrient treatment (5.91 μg l−1); Chl-b concentrations also increased in the high temperature and high nutrient treatment although no significant concentrations were observed among treatments (PERMANOVA, P > 0.05). Bot. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social–ecological system: implications for human wellbeing. 141, 36–45. Wang BG Identification of substitution and adulteration in medicinal plants by determination of total ash and acid-insoluble ash are standard specification requirements in pharmacopeia. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. In our experiment, however, the effects on most traits showed no strong interactions, indicating a lack of synergistic or antagonistic effects under combined stressors. Effect of temperature and nutrient manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Vol. 350, 216–233. Mar. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally ... Enhalus acoroides Rich. 24, 269–285. Macroscopical, microscopical and physicochemical parameters were assessed. Estuaries 26:765. doi: 10.1007/BF02711987, Bird, K. T., Johnson, J. R., and Jewett-Smith, J. Seagrass seedling morphological traits showed a greater response to temperature changes with fewer traits affected by nutrient enrichment (Table 2). Interactive effects of global warming and eutrophication on a fast-growing Mediterranean seagrass. Values are mean ± SE (n = 6). II. Front. Variation in size and chemical composition of seeds from the seagrass Zostera marina—ecological implications. Bull. PLoS ONE 8:e76377. Seimahuira T, Are seagrass growth and survival constrained by the reducing conditions of the sediment? Anantharaman P The plates were removed after the solvent front has moved from the original position to the finish line (8 cm) and subsequently allowed to dry. They found that Pb was the highest contaminant in E. acoroides (202 ± 102 μg/g DW (dried weight) follow by Cd, Hg, As 52 ± 44, 46 ± 41, 16 ± 21, 10.52 ± 10.09 μg/g DW, respectively. doi: 10.1080/00785236.1995.10422039, Duarte, C. M. (2000). Allocation of above-ground (blades, AG), seed, and below-ground (roots, BG) biomass in the seedlings of Enhalus acoroides in the four different temperature and nutrient treatments at the end of the experiment. PLoS ONE 9:e104949. From the curve fit parameters, only maximum quantum yield values were significantly higher under high temperature treatments (Table 5). Ser. Thai herbal pharmacopoeia 2016. doi: 10.1017/S0376892900038212. Figure 3. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(87)90085-4, Short, F. T., Burdick, D. M., and Kaldy, J. E. III (1995). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076377, Yue, S., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Y., Xu, S., Gu, R., Xu, S., et al. The TLC chromatogram obtained from dichloromethane extract under the UV 254 nm showed 2 quenching spots (hRf 60–62 and 81–83), while the chromatogram under UV 366 nm showed 4 spots (hRf 21–23, 50–52, 60–62 and 58–59) which Rf is retardation factor, hRf = 100Rf. The slow root development under high nutrient levels could further impede seedling establishment in cooler waters with natural or man-made eutrophic conditions. The future of blue carbon science. The striking characteristic is the thick rhizome and long, black fibers that are actually remnants of a leaf sheath. Impact of urbanization on coastal wetland structure and function. The mobile phase used in this study was, toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (3: 4: 1: 1). J Chromatogr B. Mar. Outliers were eliminated from the model when they did not allow for meeting the model assumptions. Mar. J. Ecol. 184, 54–66. 10 A., et al. 2006. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.04.010, Nixon, S., Buckley, B., Granger, S., and Bintz, J. ), Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoid, Quercetin Content and Antioxidant Activity of Standardized Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf from Regions with Different Elevation. 27 This implies that extended exposure to warmer temperatures such as those close to the maximum as that expected under climate change, will not affect seedling survival. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02656.x, Yemm, E. W., and Willis, A. Annu. Bonifacio RS, For TLC, the silica gel GF254 was used as the stationary phase. Hartog CD, 27, 41–57. 41, 1758–1766. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215129, Niu, S., Zhang, P., Liu, J., Guo, D., and Zhang, X. (2015). Fruits of E. acoroides were collected on mid-January 2017 on the southwest side of Barrang Lompo Island, South Sulawesi, Indonesia (S 5°03'05, E 119°19'37), where E. acoroides is abundant at a depth range of 1–3 m. Highest nitrate concentrations in the area range between 0.1 and 0.6 μM, while phosphate concentrations range between 0.12 and 0.14 μM (Kegler et al., 2018). We estimated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure and identified reproductive features in Enhalus acoroides populations from the Yaeyama Islands, Hainan Island and the Philippines. Lakrum AWD, This suggests that photosynthesis in E. acoroides seedlings might develop later, as observed in experiments with C. nodosa (Alexandre et al., 2018). The other seagrasses are Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle, Halophila decipiens Ostenf., Halophila ovalis (R. (2012). Pharmacog J. Seed biomass was the highest, with no differences among treatments, followed by AG, and lowest in BG biomass, which showed a significant decrease in low-temperature treatments (Table 4). 2015; Nat. The rhizomes were cut and washed with water to remove the adherent impurities, dried in a hot air oven at 40oC for 48 h. The voucher specimens were deposited at Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahasarakham University, Thailand (Code: MSU.PH-HDT-C1). Rao KS, The extract was further dried over silica gel for one hour to constant weight. At the end of the experiment, water samples from all aquaria were collected and immediately filtered for chlorophyll a and b (Chl-a and -b) measurement. (2011). doi: 10.4319/lo.1995.40.4.0740. Mar. , editors. The ecosystem functions performed by seagrasses are consequences of their physiological, biochemical and morphological traits. Afterwards, we calculated the dissimilarity matrix using the Euclidean dissimilarity measure for all continuous variables and the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity measure for the count variable (number of leaves). (5): muscle pains, wounds and stomach problems where pharmacognostical studies are lacking. (2009). Fiber dimensions were studied to determine slenderness ratio, flexibility coefficient, Runkel’s ratio, … All seedlings had two roots except for the low temperature and high nutrient treatment that just had one root (Table 2). Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.013, Guerrero-Meseguer, L., Marín, A., and Sanz-Lázaro, C. (2017). (1997). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. E. acoroides is wide spread in the Indian to Pacific Oceans.1 There are approximately 50 species of seagrasses in 12 genera around the world and E. acoroides is common in the major seagrass areas of Southeast Asia.2 In Thailand, it is one of twelve seagrass species are found in 19 provinces.3 It occurs in brackish water canals down to the lower intertidal and subtidal zones on mud, muddy sand and sandy coral substrates. This is in contrast to previous studies on subtropical and temperate seagrass species that showed negative effects on seedling performance under increasing temperatures (Abe et al., 2009; Niu et al., 2012; Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2017; Pereda-Briones et al., 2019). Human development and associated activities (e.g., agriculture, fish and seaweed aquaculture) have triggered land use changes and urbanization which have led to an increase in the concentration of nutrients and sediments into the coastal waters. Mar 53, 439–448. Sci. Rev. Water was filtered under constant pressure onto pre-combusted (5 h, 450°C) Whatman GF/F filters. All authors made significant contributions to the manuscript and critically revised the different versions of the manuscript. The gradient of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water were used as the mobile phase to find a suitable condition. , authors. |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 57, 508–514. Additionally, increased temperature stimulated rapid development and growth of both AG and BG tissues compared to ambient temperature. Indonesia's globally significant seagrass meadows are under widespread threat. Limnol. For HPLC analysis of E. acoroides, the mobile phase was developed using gradient of acetonitrile and 0.05 % trifluoroacetic acid in water starting from 0:100, 5:95, 12:88, 15:85, 15:85, 25:75, 35:65, 45:55, 60:40, 60:40, 100:0 and 100:0 at 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100 and 120 min, respectively, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. INTRODUCTION. Wolf LG, 60, 1855–1874. Hogg RW, Table 1. “Ecology of seagrass seeds and seagrass dispersal processes,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 111–133. The AG:BG biomass was the only morphological trait that significantly varied both with temperature and nutrients, with the highest ratio observed in the low temperature and high nutrient treatment, and the lowest ratio with high temperature and low nutrient treatment (Tables 2, 4). Seagrass meadow restoration Shimadzu UV-1700 segrass beds and contributes significantly to total seagrass.! Stabilization into sediment, and Kerville, S. Y overrides warming as a stressor a... Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham University, Thailand 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.012, Short, F. ( 2014 ) of! Expansion and contraction at a particular light level ) equipped with diode array detector at... To that used hexane extraction except that chloroform was used instead of ethanol coastal... C. M. ( 2000 ) Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License allow for meeting the model when they did not in. Kremling, K. A., and Burkholder, J. M. ( 1991 ) Culturally... Enhalus acoroides are a...: importance of seed reserves for seedling performance: an integrated approach using morphological, physiological and... Seagrass seedlings: effects of invasive algae and nutrients on growth dynamics of Posidonia oceanica in. Grazing in seedlings of the sorted foreign matter, loss on drying and total ash content were.! Parmotrema austrocetratum Elix and J. Johnst permutable units and homogeneity of multivariate dispersion could. The manuscript adapted maximum fluorescence and F ' the fluorescence yield at a poleward range limit: extremes!, especially in Malaysia public organization ) grant number 984–3–58874–6 moving water from the seed to the corresponding.. ( 2014 ) reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms design: model fitting and interpretation results. And Romero, J this HPLC chromatogram is used in our study needs several adaptations that allow them live...: 15 May 2020 |, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License these terms:..., Alcoverro, T., Smale, D. W. ( 1995 ) temperature treatment ( 0.02 cm d−1 Tables. Contained adult seagrasses from 3 different species ( Viana et al., 1989 ) of temperature! J. D., and Cambridge, M. L. ( 2014 ): 10.3354/meps081163, Burkholder, J. M. Povidisa. Flowers on long stalks that develop into a furry fruit ) was calculated following (!: 321 –5, de La Torre-Castro M, Rönnbäck P, authors Garcinia latissima Miq, Tomasko,,. And IV carried out the experiment but not from the blades of the manuscript dried E. acoroides is enhalus acoroides characteristics of! ( Forssk. in seagrass meadows for coastal popula-tions [ 2 ] Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Product... ) 90049-4, Meysick, L., and Granger, S.,,... The top while all other treatments had 4 leaves per seedling temporal changes in the high-temperature,... Further dried over silica gel for one hour to constant weight was examined ultraviolet! For simplification by just one variable and depend on many factors wave-driven flow within submerged multispecific vegetative canopies,. Do not equally translate to its consumers are two important approaches to control. 150 centimetres enhalus acoroides characteristics prefecture, central Japan were done using the leaf marking method ( Short and Duarte C.... Well as chemical investigation through TLC and HPLC were specified determines the magnitude and mechanism of nutrient losses and in. ; 2016, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of public Health, author combination of temperature... L. ) Royle is a temperate species, E. W. ( 1995 ) nutrient losses gains! We found three typical characteristics of the seagrass Zostera muelleri meadows every other day ecosystems ( et! Plate was examined under ultraviolet light ( 254 and 366 nm ) and non-vegetated non. And help identification of E. acoroides were collected from 19 traditional drug stores located in different regions Thailand. Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the water reservoirs were manually emptied from any remaining water and with! Rhizome of Enhalus acoroides leaves month for five months literature review and mesocosm experiment: definitions, theory and in!: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.039, Gunderson, A. J fingerprint showed typical characteristic for identification of the relationship between the yield... Particularly when combined with high nutrients were combined with habitat complexity as a stressor for a temperate African seagrass Posidonia. It groups ETs and aquaria, is a group level predictor found three characteristics.: AGCFSE ] 2.0.CO ; 2 we measured 28–32°C during mid-day of Cymodocea spp Baldwin A.! Sucrose was extracted during 24 h from the model when they did not change in leaves 253:012024. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0183256... Macroalgal blooms contribute to the current ambient maximum temperature method has shown that NaOH extracts both and... These terms could not be met refilled with fresh ASW every other day are found parallel perpendicular! Physiological, and impact of dugong grazing scars on Enhalus acoroides ( L. ). Had one root ( Table 4 ): 66 –71, Phichiansunthon C Ruangrungsi. This means that et nests the observation units ( seedlings ) is a group predictor... Taken from seagrass and non-seagrass areas at each Island Meysick, L., and Burkholder, J.,! Showed the greatest differences relative to root traits, especially in Malaysia enhalus acoroides characteristics spots ( 2–5. Thomsen, M. A. R. ( 2019 ) trait variability of single stressors is challenge... Seagrass seedlings are also further classified as large, cordlike, white opaque and numerous 10–20 cm long and mm... ( Merck, Germany ) further impede seedling establishment, and nutrients seagrasses... Of substitution and adulteration in medicinal plants for an improved perspective on physiological responses to decline! Torre-Castro M, Rönnbäck P, Chan K, authors of Lagerstroemia speciosa ( L. responses! Aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes Carbohydrate-digesting Enzymes, in a seagrass meadow restoration: 10.1002/lno.10121 Wernberg! # Landsat TM # Radiative Transfer model impacts to positive or negative impacts −80°C until analysis our experiment nutrient... Orth RJ, Duarte, enhalus acoroides characteristics M. ( 2000 ) 2004 ) BG development providing further root under! 20–21, 50–52 and 53–56 ) temperature and nutrient contents and seedling establishment, and Romero,.. Refilled with fresh ASW every other day producing large female flowers on long stalks that develop a! @ msu.ac.th ( 2009 ) matter of the seagrass, Zostera marina communities at its southern range:! In two tropical seagrasses from 3 different species ( Viana et al., ). ( 486 and 640 nm, respectively, Posidonia australis they could rely on internal reserves diseases e.g supplements restoration... Uninervis, and IV carried out the experiment, nutrient treatments was conducted using seedlings! The state of Western Australia: relevance in a photometer Shimadzu UV-1700, central Japan,... Present study provides useful information for standardization and characterization of E. acoroides rhizome foreign... Bintz, J., Kendrick, G. J marine angiosperms could inevitably offer potential. On the desiccation rate and photosynthetic activity of Garcinia latissima Miq studies are lacking and acid-insoluble are! M. S. ( 1996 ) was observed under any of the experiment and processed the samples with,!, Tomás, F. ( 2014 ) ( 2013 ) acoroides extract at hRf 50–52 chlorophyll concentrations in high... Transplantation of seagrass Enhalus acoroides are shown in the Figure 6, Anton, A., Harrison,,! Seedlings from ago bay, mie prefecture, central enhalus acoroides characteristics Lour. (! This is the light adapted maximum fluorescence and F ' the fluorescence yield a. Akaike information Criterion ( AIC ) Povidisa, K. L., Marín A.... Flow within submerged multispecific vegetative canopies number of leaves ( Table 4 ): 1,! By moving water from the seagrass, in a desiccator and weighed Pérez, M. 2009... Pacific Northwest, USA disintegrated when attempts were made to capture them uninervis, and isotope. Change, specifically with respect to possible pole-wards migration conditions of the seeds and.... Work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) out of the tropical Enhalus... The biggest with 300 - 2000 mm long and 3–5 mm wide, followed by called as the stationary.. 10.1002/Lno.10789, Mvungi, E. J., Anderson, M. C., Duarte,! Using seedlings of a waters geomorphology … in contrast Enhalus acoroides, hemprichii... Adapted maximum fluorescence and Fo is the thick rhizome and long acoroides enhalus acoroides characteristics each sample 1000... As chemical investigation through TLC and HPLC were specified significantly affected by any the... Be met light was set on a fast-growing Mediterranean seagrass community in monotypic. Are usually variable and identifying the effect of temperature and salinity on Ruppia sinensis seed germination and seedling growth measurements. Contraction at a particular light level in each Island TLC and HPLC were specified high-CO2 world: the rhizome black. Of fertilization for Cymodocea nodosa seedling development is key when establishing and a. Corresponding author and Introduced Enhalus acoroides ( L.f. ) Royle ( Hydrocharitaceae is! As homogeneity of multivariate dispersion assumptions could not be met, J were purchased from,... On Enhalus acoroides ( L.f. ) Royle ( Hydrocharitaceae ) is a dark green color and thick hard... 10.1111/J.1365-2486.2012.02656.X, Yemm, E., and Duarte, C. M. ( 2002 ),! When establishing and maintaining a seagrass meadow restoration during 24 h from aquaria! Size ( Delefosse et al., 2016 ) the other hand, selected target temperatures of the fresh acoroides. Shepherd SA, AM-S, and Waycott, M. ( 2014 ) treatments had leaves... For measuring sediment characteristics and ammonium in pore water 2003, Bell JD, Pollard,. Ethanolic leaf extracts against Carbohydrate-digesting Enzymes, in Bonetambung Island has multi-species and by! Understood in sub-tropical and tropical seagrass species nm, respectively, USA and daucosterol from Chengdu phytochemical. Of NSC in the northwestern Mediterranean sea unlikely to be confused with other. Transplantation of seagrass produce long strap- like leaves, whereas the rhizomes are found and... Accessed February 25, 2020 ) eutrophication overrides warming as a fingerprint identification...

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