milicia excelsa growth rate

Weeding regimes (2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks) were allotted in a separate plot planted with pure stands of M. excelsa seedlings at the spacing of 2×2 m in three replicates. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2017.81.86. Milicia excelsa, etc ; Bursaphelenchus; females; morphometry; new species; phylogeny; tail; vulva; wood; Cameroon; Italy; Show all 11 Subjects Abstract: A new species of Bursaphelenchus, extracted from unprocessed logs of Milicia excelsa from Cameroon and arriving in the port of Leghorn, Tuscany, Central Italy, is described. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Jard. Stem girth (mm) was measured with the aid of veneers caliper. Data were collected on Milicia height, stem girth and number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population density at 2 weeks interval until the end of the experiment following the same procedure applied on the previous experiment. Four separate experiments tested respectively: (i) cuttings obtained from 1-, 2-, 10- and 20-yr … Riddoch et al. Milicia species also play important roles in erosion control and in enhancement of soil fertility. species growth performance as well as its survival rate in plantation establishments (Irvine, 1961). In the small gaps, seedlings will likely continue to succumb to competition for … This study was conducted to assess the effect of planting M. excelsa with companion plants and weeding regimes for the control of P. lata. There are a few thick branches in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape. Milicia excelsa is a deciduous Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 35 m (114ft) at a medium rate. There are many variables and growing conditions that could affect the growth rate of a tree. Known locally as iroko, the authors note that exploitation of the trees have led to a decrease in its abundance. Of all the factors listed, slow growth rate is the main factor militating against propagation of Milicia in the study area; Oyo (58%), Osun (42%), Ogun (36%) Ondo (46%) and Ekiti (22%), followed by lack of seeds for propagation Oyo (34%), Osun (26%), Ogun (16%), Ondo (8%) and Ekiti (30%) (Table 5). Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth in the nursery as well as for its plantation establishment. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Underplanting and planting in clear-felled areas with Maesopsis eminii has proved more successful, but after 9 years the rate of growth appears to be slackening. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia Mansonia altissima, Albizia zygia, ... [12], height growth of Balanites aegyptiaca can be very slow at the seedlings stage, but at the saplings stage, the growth rate increases drastically. Am J Bot. The bark is pale or dark grey, thick but little fissured, and if it gets damaged it oozes milky latex. Epub 2012 Aug 21. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. Reply Trish B June 22, 2019 at 10:41 pm. The latex is used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions. The study will help the researchers to expose the ecological relationship between P. lata and Milicia and its cryptic nature that contributes to their complexity in management. Male trees have white catkins that extend 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in) and dangle from twigs at the axils of the leaves. M. excelsa extract at 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/ml inhibited the growth of S. aureus but not P. aeruginosa. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. This is in support with report by Paul and Weber24 that Astronium graveolens, Cedrela odorata and Terminalia amazonia planted in mixture with Zea mays and Cajanus cajan showed significantly superior growth performance over those in pure plantation. Average tree density varied from 1 to 7 stems ha⁻¹ with diversity index ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. Distribution of Milicia excelsa 453 Tuomela et al. Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia are both traded as iroko and the share of Milicia excelsa in that commerce is unknown. Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma. In this study, mixed planting of Milicia with Cedrela odorata, A. indica (neem) and Pierreodendron africanum did not have significant effect in reducing P. lata infestation. It is also very resistant to treatments with preservatives although the sapwood is porous to water. and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and thus render the investment unprofitable. Its range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the west to Mozambique in the east. Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. Get latest info on Teak Plants, Sagwan Plant, suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders, wholesale suppliers with Teak Plants prices for buying. Scientific name: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) These specific conditions are characterized by presence of oxalate, bacteria for oxalate oxidation and a dry season, which are common conditions in which Milicia tends to grow. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. … This assumption corroborate the report by Jonsson et al.25 that of coffee berry borer infestation on cocoa were reduced in shade plantation than on sun-exposed plantations. Trees planted 50 years ago in Uganda are now ready to harvest. Early underplanting with Chlorophora excelsa and Khaya grandifoliola has proved a failure. They are not grown in plantations but extractedfrom the natural forest at an unsustainable rate. Therefore, it is extremely valuable timber, used especially for quality indoor and outdoor furniture. There is evidence that some of the variation that is described above amongst individuals is due to the variation in the environment. Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa: Our websites: Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa Flora of Mozambique: Milicia excelsa Flora of Zambia: Milicia excelsa External websites: African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Milicia excelsa African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Milicia excelsa EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa Twelve (2 week) weeding intervals minimized P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa during early growth. ", Christine Ouinsavi and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional On arable crops, Mutisya et al.22 reported that agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly (p<0.05) lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. The majorconstraint on cultivation and afforestation is thegall-forming insect … All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 5.86 to 7.69. K. Agyeman, 1D. Control of Phytolyma pests through the use of chemical pesticide has been found ineffective due to its hidden nature. (sapelli, sipo, kosipo and tiama) and iroko (Milicia excelsa). Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. The problem of slow growth of Milicia identified by the respondents in the study area as one of the factors militating against propagation of Milicia in this study, contradicted the earlier report by Birnie (1997) that Milicia excelsa is a fast growing species and coppices readily. [9] The people that conducted this study found that it would be a good method to use to specifically fight against the slow decline of the Iroko species. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. R. Wagner 1 Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research KNUST … The plant is not self-fertile. agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia Root16 has earlier reported that diverse plantings provides more resources for natural enemies to build up including non-pest prey species, pollen and nectar thus build natural enemy communities and strengthen their impacts on pests. A mark was made on the plant at 5 cm from the ground level and all the measurements were taken at that marked portion until the end of the experiment. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. Abstract The effects of stock plant age, coppicing, cutting stem length and node position on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. [4] This seed also germinated better than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer.[4]. Product Details. The timber is used for construction of ships and barrels because of its high resistance to bad weather4. The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. [1], In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off in small scales, but seldom fissured; slash thick, fibrous, cream coloured with brown spots, exuding white latex; trunk There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in plant height of transplanted seedlings of M. excelsa weeded at 2 weeks interval (48.42 cm) at 16 weeks after transplanting, followed by 4 weeks weeding interval (41.62 cm). The existing tree crop which provides shade environment will serve as deterrence to P. lata from locating its host plant Milicia and consequently reduce infestation. acephala) successfully reduced whitefly infestation. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. The smaller branches hang down in female trees and curve up in male trees. International audienceThe present study focuses on the cracking of tropical species of the Gabonese forest such as Milicia excelsa (Iroko) and Pterocarpus soyauxii (Padouk). Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia. Moreover, this study showed that 12 weeks weeding regime reduced the incidence of P. lata infestation. Wagner et al.14 also reported that deep over story shade during the early stages of growth can reduce Phytolyma gall formation, prevent dieback and associated loss of seedlings. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Although this is the theory that has the most evidence, it is possible for Milicia excelsa to have evolved in a different way. In this study, daily application of M. excelsa ointment enhanced wound contraction, epithelialization and fibroplasia. The experiments were laid in a Randomized Block Design (RBD), growth parameters (height, stem diameter and number of branches) and P. lata infestation (number of galls and size of galls) on M. excelsa were observed at two weeks intervals. Common Name(s):Iroko Scientific Name:Milicia excelsa, M. regia(syn.Chlorophora excelsa, etc) Distribution:Tropical Africa Tree Size:100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight:41 lbs/ft3 (660 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.55, .66 Janka Hardness:1,260 lbf (5,610 … A series of experiments was undertaken at the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana to investigate whether Milicia excelsa could be propagated from root cuttings, and to assess the influence of tree age (2 or 20 yr old), and cutting length (6 or 12 cm) and orientation (vertical or horizontal) on shoot and root production. An application rate of 27,000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the growth of the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control. The percentage infestation of M. excelsa mixed with C. odorata. C.C.Berg. The introduction of Milicia excelsa into plantations as a native species can help decrease the exploitation rate in Ghana since it will reduce the high dependency on the natural forest for Milicia excelsa … Milicia excelsa is widely spread across Africa, M. regia are found mainly in the wet forest zone while M. excelsa have a preference for the dry zones1. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is known to the world as one of the most sought-after African timbers. dispersal in a low-density wind-pollinated tropical tree, Molecular Ecology, 6-10, Taylor, Daniel; Kankam, Bright; Wagner, Michael, 1. They are recognized together as Iroko. The tree is nitrogen fixing and the leaves are used for mulching. The total height, collar diameter and number of leaves were monitored fortnightly, while the Relative Growth Rates (RGRs) for height and diameter were estimated after 24 weeks. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration.Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma.This study investigated the impact of Phytolyma on Milicia planted in … Examples are Milicia excelsa and Afromosia spp which are near ... has been observed that the rate of encroachment of these forest reserves is quite high and the damage being done … The tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. A study in Ghana found that this tree relies heavily on the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) for seed dispersal, over 98% of the seed falling to the ground having passed through its gut. Family: Moraceae. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. M. excelsa is widely distributed across tropical African forests in West, The treatments were four weeding regimes: Two weeks weeding regime, 4 weeks weeding regime, 6 weeks weeding regime and control (3 months weeding interval). This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. C.C. 1). Growth rate is medium; slower than Khaya spp. They are very valuable to the community and are used to cure human diseases in traditional medicine, to make furniture in carpentry and joinery and to protect cultural values in local religions3. and neem were 12.94 and 22.01%, respectively (Fig. Growth rings of African timber described by an approach using Gis tools: Case of Milicia excelsa Cédric Ilunga1*, Prosper Sabongo2, Joseph Komba3, Idriss Ayaya4 and Leopold Ndjele2 1University of Kisangani, Faculty of renewable resources management, B. Similarly, Pinus silvestris and Quercus humilis were found favored by the presence of a dense under storey, particularly when shrubs were higher than seedlings30,31. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.[2]. Milicia excelsa is one of two tree species (the other being Milicia regia) that yield timber commonly known as African teak. [7], The tree is also used in herbal medicine. Relative growth rate of Milicia was highest at 42% of full irradiance (Agyeman 1994). This study investigated the impact of Phytolyma on Milicia … spp.) Ofori and Cobbinah15 also reported that planting Milicia with Gliricidia sepium minimizes the abundance and damage caused by P. lata. It ranged … These results provide scientific evidence showing the efficacy of M. excelsa leaves in wound healing. A. Ofori, 1J. In Kenya, the species is now rare and endangered. The authors explore the literature on two native tree species of commercial value in central Africa:Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia. 2). The high rate of exploitation coupled … The exception to this is Musizi (Maesopsis eminii), which is a fast growing indigenous tree with considerable promise for timber Nichols, E Nkrumah] on Amazon.com. All the analysis were performed using ASSISTAT version 7.6 beta statistical assistance19. Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. The structure and dynamics of traditional agroforestry systems and the ecological structure of Milicia excelsa … Bull. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. (1991) measured photosynthetic responses of weeds, pioneer and late successional trees and found that Milicia excelsa had similar photosynthetic rates (6 … which has led to an intensive exploitation of these trees in the natural forest. The number of branches was assessed by direct counting of the number of branches observed on each M. excelsa plant. Fresh seed germinates readily but it loses viability in storage. The IUCN has this species on the Red List under ‘Near Threatened’ (BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009). An experimental plot 30×30 m2 was cleared manually with cutlass and divided into four sub plots. The timber is very strong, quite hard and long-lasting and the most important timber in international trade2. This implies that companion plants encourages development of some insect pests infestation rather than reduction. Find here details of companies selling Teak Plants, for your purchase requirements. However, there were not significant differences (p<0.05) among the different weeding intervals and the control. R. Cobbinah and 2M. INTRODUCTION. [2] Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. Web. DUR) were transferred from germination boxes to polypot bags to observe some growth parameters under varying red/far-red light ratios. Belg. [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. Horse dung manure collected from polo club Ibadan when horses were fed fresh grasses only were applied to the M. excelsa seedlings after 2 weeks of transplanting at the rate of 5.0 t ha–1. The highest plant height, stem girth and number of branches of Milicia was obtained on plot mixed with Cedrela odorata with mean value of 72.80 cm, 0.94 mm and 1.79, respectively (Table 1). Suitable pH: acid, neutral … Number of galls on the test plants was assessed by direct counting of the galls at 2 weeks intervals while size of gall was measured with the aid of thread which was later stretched on meter rule to determine the actual length. This indicates that shading effects of different vegetation affect the population of P. lata, their activity, abundance of galls and growth of Milicia excelsa. Growth/development: transplant seedlings into pots 3 weeks after germination. The reproductive biology of Milicia excelsa and M. regia was studied Tne major distinguishing traits were crown shape, bark texture and ... growth and eventually death of the ... of odum continues, the species will cease to be of commercial importance by the end of the 20th century. Data were collected on the plant height (cm), stem girth (mm), number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population at 2 weeks interval until two years. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. C.C. The powdered bark is used for coughs, heart problems and lassitude. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. This study will help divulge the impact of companion plants on P. lata infestation. This paper therefore investigated the early growth … After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. The leaves of are used as mulch and the tree serves a good shade or shelter and sometimes used as an avenue tree5. Each block was allotted to one weeding regime and labeled accordingly. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.[2]. Plant height (cm) was measured from the soil level to the terminal bud using meter rule. Synonyms: Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) population of Ghana is about 16.8 million (1995) with a growth rate average of 3.3% per annum. The leaves and the ashes also have medicinal uses.[7]. Many indigenous species are also very difficult to grow in a plantation situation (e.g. These translated to an increase of 14.83 and 10.18% in seedlings weeded at 2 weeks and 4 weeks weeding regime (interval) respectively above the control by 16 weeks after transplanting. (1996) evaluated the growth of dipterocarp seedlings in artificial gaps in Indonesia and concluded that diameter increment in natural regenera-tion was increased in gaps in comparison with increments on trees in the understorey. Mixed planting of M. excelsa with different tree crops also showed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the growth of M. excelsa. 52: 227 (1982). Phytalyma lata infestation on M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime by 15% as compare to 2 weeks regime. Effect of mixed planting with companion plants on P. lata infestation on M. excelsa:Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with Cedrela odorata and neem compared to control. Similarly, there were significant differences (p<0.01) among the treatments on the stem girth . Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. A row consisted of five seedlings and was replicated five times giving a total 25 Milicia plants and 25 plants of other tree species in each sub plot in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) The control plot was mono plantation of Milicia excelsa at the same spacing of 3×3 m2. excelsa Welw. The plant is not self-fertile. To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. Iverson et al.10 and Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that more diverse plant associations are less prone to insect damage including in the forests. At 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, the suppression were 76.7%, 80% and 96.7% respectively while in the prophylactic; at the lowest dose of 250mg/kg, the extract suppressed parasite growth by 42.43%, 45.28%, 59.82% and 66.61% after treatment [9] However, most of the people that were surveyed for the study did not use this system specifically to regenerate this species, therefore even though there is hope in helping this species the measures have not been taken to do so. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) in four replicates. Benth. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is known to the world as one of the most sought-after African timbers.It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is associated with fertility and used in local medicine. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration. This, over time, has resulted in the tree that we see today commonly known as Iroko. Use of companion crops or mixed planting has been reported by several authors as a potential tool for insect pest management. It takes 150 years to grow four inches. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. In a study done in 2010, it was found that environmental change from different regions in Benin caused much of the variation in Milicia excelsa. A solution that has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa move further away from being threatened is agroforestry. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Evaluation of weeding regimes for the control of Phytolyma lata on Milicia excelsa:Six-months old healthy seedling of M. excelsa raised in the screen house were transplanted in a 10×30 m2 experimental plot at the spacing of 2×2 m at the rate of one seedling per stand and five seedlings per row in three replicates. The plots were maintained by weeding manually at 6 weeks intervals. Six-months old M. excelsa seedlings of uniform heights (20 cm) collected from screen house and six months old seedlings of Azadirachta indica, Cedrela odorata and Pierreodendron africanum collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery were planted in binary mixture. Similarly, Wagner et al.14 also reported that mixed planting with other trees species and the use of different shade environments reduces the pest population, activity, abundance of galls and enhance growth of Milicia spp. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) on P. lata infestation between mono plantation and mixed plantation. The authors are grateful to Education Trust Fund 2008/2009 ETF- AST and D for sponsoring this study and to the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria for granting the enabling environment towards this study. 25, 2009 28 INFLUENCE OF PHYTOLYMA LATA (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF MILICIA EXCELSA 1V. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. IJFR International Journal of Forestry Research 1687-9376 1687-9368 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 210179 10.1155/2009/210179 210179 Research Article Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Threatened African Tree Species, Milicia excelsa, Using Nuclear Microsatellites DNA Markers Ouinsavi Christine 1, 2 … C. C. Berg au sud-est du Cameroun Daïnou, Kasso; Mahy, Grégory; Doucet, Jean-Louis. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . These include Milicia excelsa, Entandrophragma spp. Fertility and birth are associated with it and its timber is used to make ceremonial drums and coffins. excelsa demonstrated a dose-dependent chemo-suppression in early and residual infections. To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. Milicia excelsa occurred sparsely in agroforestry systems in all regions, with density ranging from 1 to 4 stems ha⁻¹; stand basal area varying from 33.10⁻⁴ to 129.10⁻⁴ m² ha⁻¹, and negligible seedling regeneration. These red/far-red light were regulated by shading the various replicate … An application rate of 27000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the survivalof the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 87.50 percent over the control.6.1.3 Effect of poultry manure on the mean number of leaves of Miliciaexcelsa seedlingsPoultry manure also had a significant effect on the mean number of leaves and can thereforebe applied to Milicia excelsa … The critical energy release rate is computed with a modified Mixed Mode Crack Growth (MMCG) specimen. If the numbers of mates available are not high enough because dispersion methods are not effective over long distances, then the species will begin to suffer from inbreeding depression (inbreeding can lead to accumulation of recessive deleterious alleles in a population). Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Two weeks weeding regime had the highest stem girth (0.58 mm), followed by 6 weeks weeding regime (0.45 mm) and the least was the control (0.35 mm) (Table 3). Extensive trials of other species, mainly softwoods and Eucalypts, … N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. A negative growth rate at low irradiance (<3%) is a typical characteristics of pioneer species [ 46 , 47 ], and pioneer species tend to show maximum growth at higher irradiance than shade … The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko (Milicia excelsa), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per … Similarly, Bosu et al.13 also reported that planting Milicia excelsa and M. regia with a mixture of Terminalia superb was found effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. The Federal College of Forestry Site is located on the latitude 7.50 N and longitude 3.90 E. The climate condition of the area is tropical with an annual rainfall range of 180-700 mm per annum while the annual temperature is 34.40°C the daily humility is about 60%17. bars) relative growth rate (RGR) of collar diameter and height for Milicia excelsa seedlings under three treatments in a nursery (screen house enclosure (SHS), fortnight spraying of systemic insecticide (TRT) and untreated seedlings (UNT). is a major insect pests of Milicia excelsa (Iroko) which has hampered the establishment of Milicia plantation in many West African countries. 1. Dainou, K., E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet. The wood is hard, durable and termite resistant and resembles teak. The species is a large deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres (160 ft) high. ... Growth/development: transplant seedlings into pots 3 weeks after germination. Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. 2012 Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Field infestation by P. lata in M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 and 6 weeks weeding interval by 15.6 and 3.34%, respectively compared to 2 weeks weeding interval (Fig. The population of P. lata was assessed by close observation on the leaves, stem and branches of the Milicia plant and direct counting of P. lata adult. Milicia excelsa planted in mixture with C. odorata significantly (p<0.05) showed higher plant height and stem diameter than those in pure stands. Similarly, Plath et al.21 reported that higher herbivore damage to Tabebui rosea was found in mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands. Berg In Benin'. Infestation and seedling survival were used as indices of effectiveness by subjecting data collected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test. Evaluation of mixed planting with other tree species for the control of P. lata on M. excelsa:The method for evaluating the effect of mixed planting of tree species with M. excelsa for control of P. lata infestation was adopted from Forrester et al.18. Bosu, Paul P. et al. The rate of disappearance of Milicia excelsa in the forests is alarming with West Africa being the hardest hit by the trend. Berg in Benin, Agroforestry Systems, 17-26, "3.3 The symbolic and sacred significance of particular forest resources", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milicia_excelsa&oldid=867425350, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2018, at 17:04. Ouinsavi, Christine, and Nestor Sokpon. C.C. Materials and Methods: Six months old M. excelsa seedlings were planted in mixed stands with companion plants (Cedrela odorata, Azadirachta indica and Pierreodendron africanum) seedlings in a separate sub plots in five replicates. Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and neem had the highest percentage survival 24 months after transplanting. Iroko is a major timber in international trade; during the 1960s Côte d’Ivoire exported about 55,000 m³ of iroko logs and 6000 m³ of iroko sawnwood per year, and Ghana 28,000 m³ of sawnwood. Milicia species(M. excelsa andM. Bats, rodents, and birds). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the effect of mixed planting with C. odorata and neem on the percentage mortality and survival of M. excelsa. Legaspi et al.23 also reported that intercropping mustard (Brassica juncea) as a companion crop for collards (Brassica oleraceae var. Harvesting of Milicia species is mainly done from the natural forest, however, replacement has proven to be insufficient to match the rate of exploitation mainly due to their susceptibility to Phytolyma gall attack6. of planting Milicia excelsa in various densities and species mixtures. In this study, we analyzed the survival and growth of two timber species, Milicia excelsa (Welw.) This present study reveals that planting of M. excelsa with companion plants of the same age was not highly promising in reducing Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia seedlings. The effects of vitamins (half-strength Murashige and Skoog) and growth regulators (benzyladenine (BA) and NAA at 4.4+0.54 or 2.2+0.27 µsmallcap˜M) on axillary bud elongation (ABE) and shoot growth … This corroborate report by Ratnadass et al.20 that vegetation diversification does not necessarily reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. It is used for construction work, shipbuilding and marine carpentry, sleepers, sluice gates, framework, trucks, draining boards, outdoor and indoor joinery, stairs, doors, frames, garden furniture, cabinet work, panelling, flooring and profile boards for decorative and structural uses. Assuming an extraction rate of 172,983 m3/yr and a growth rate of 28,650 m3/yr, it is estimated Background and Objective: Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata Scott. Mvule and Prunus africanum). An application rate of 27,000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the growth of the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control. Bosu, J.R. Cobbinah, J.D. Attempt to establish Milicia plantation has been constrained by Phytolyma lata attack on the young plants which subsequently result to gall formation and dieback of the plant8. Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 months after germination. It often has several short buttress roots at the base. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. In a study [5] it was seen that isolation was caused by one or more of the animals that are known for dispersal of Milicia excelsa (i.e. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The trees are dioecious. Adult M. excelsa trees in the forest do not produce sufficient natural regeneration to maintain the stock reduced by frequent felling. [1], Because of these and many other uses of Milicia excelsa people have over harvested this species to the point of concern. The growth of P. elata was faster than the growth of M. excelsa and a negative growth rate was observed for M. excelsa at low irradiance . Also, Bosu et al.13 found that planting M. excelsa or M. regia in a mixture with Terminalia superba was effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. 'Traditional Agroforestry Systems As Tools For Conservation Of Genetic Resources Of Milicia Excelsa Welw. This study revealed the potential of using companion plants as a control option for Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia excelsa at the early stage of plantation establishment. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth … Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and A. indica had the highest percentage Milicia seedling survival 24 months after transplanting. Therefore, 12 weeks weeding interval can be recommended to reduce P. lata infestation on Milicia plantation at the early stage and further studies on planting of Milicia in mixture with old companion plants in plantation is required to confirm their potential in reducing P. lata infestation. It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is … Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss. . Axillary buds collected from shoots of 15-month-old seedlings of 3 half-sib families of Milicia excelsa, obtained from the Ashanti and eastern regions of Ghana, were cultured on woody plant medium. Berg (iroko, Moraceae) and Pericopsis elata (Harms) Meeuwen (assamela, Fabaceae), in enriched logging gaps and in plantations. It was found that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals. Wagner et al.26 reported that agro forestry and mixed species plantation approach could be used to successfully manage Phytolyma lata, implying that the over story shade is beneficial to M. excelsa at some stages. ", Braissant, Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau, Michel Aragno, and Eric P. Verrecchia. 1 Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) is an important timber tree in much of Africa and when grown in monocultural plantations has been subject to nearly complete destruction by gall‐forming psyllids in the genus Phytolyma. Apart from strong climate oscillation during the … Results: Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with C. odorata and A. indica by 26.43 and 17.37%, respectively compared to control. Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. "Biologically Induced Mineralization in the Tree Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Its Causes and Consequences to the Environment. Distribution and habitat. Moreover, Sun et al.28,29 reported that low levels of competing vegetation are often associated with higher tip moth infestation rates. According to IUCN7, Milicia species is categorized as one of the endangered valuable timber species. In contrast, Bosu et al.13 reported that deep shade can minimize the quantum of photosynthetic radiation needed for growth, which can result in seedlings becoming etiolated and eventually dying. Figure 2a and b: Mean (with S.E. Conclusion: It is concluded that planting M. excelsa in mixture with companion plants was promising for P. lata management and 12 weeks weeding regime reduced P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa. This digital document is a journal article from Forest Ecology and Management, published by Elsevier in 2006. Agroforestry Systems 74.1 (2008): 17-26. [10], J.-P. Bizoux, K. Dai’nou, The finding of Agyeman (1994)that Milicia has its highest relative growth rate at 4 months in 42% of full irradiance was supported by our result that the individual gap with the greatest height increment was at 53% of full irradiance, although heights overall in large and medium-sized gaps were not significantly different. Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off in small scales, but seldom fissured; slash thick, fibrous, cream coloured with brown spots, exuding white latex; trunk lofty, straight and cylindrical, up to 20 m … Survival and growth of mixed plantations of Milicia excelsa and Terminalia superba 9 years after planting in Ghana [An article from: Forest Ecology and Management] [P.P. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . Four week old seedlings of Milicia excelsa (A. CHEV) C.C BERG and Nauclea diderrichii (DE WILD and TH. Poster (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 124 (15 ULiège) Guyot et al.12 reported that infestation by Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees Castanea sativa was lower on stands with higher tree species richness or diversity . Am J Bot. Experimental site: Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, for two years (2010-2011). Likewise, Wagner et al.14 observed that mixed planting of other tree species and use of different shades environments reduced the pest population, abundance of galls and enhanced growth of Milicia species. It cannot grow in the shade. Inbreeding could contribute to why this species is moving closer to being on the “Threatened” conservation list. The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko ( Milicia excelsa ), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. The structure and dynamics of traditional agroforestry systems and the ecological structure of Milicia excelsa … It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. [9] The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. It is hypothesized that the ancestor slowly developed a different flowering time from its ancestor, which led to differences in selection pressure during the time of reproduction. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of mixed planting and weeding regime on the infestation of P. lata on Milicia excelsa in Southwest Nigeria. The control experiment had the least number of galls, sizes of galls and population density of P. lata. Reproduction et régénération naturelle de Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. regia, Moraceae, theirokos) are among the most useful indigenous rain forest treespecies in Africa. The leaves are 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) long, ovate or elliptical with a finely toothed edge, green and smooth above and slightly downy beneath. It grows rapidly, can be coppiced and is ready for cutting after about fifty years. It prefers moist soil. The slowest-growing tree is said to be the cedar tree. Statistical analysis: Data collected on growth parameter were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test while data on number of galls and population density of P. lata were transformed using square root transformation. Guyot et al.12 confirmed that tree diversity has the potential to reduce the impact of invasive forest pests at the stand level. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Bot. Milicia excelsa is widely spread across Africa, M. regia are found mainly in the wet forest zone while M.excelsa have a preference for the dry zones 1. The plots were weeded manually with hoe and cutlass according to the weeding regime stipulated for it. genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene It is found in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. More importantly, agroforestry promotes the growth of any plant species by taking pressure off remnant forests that usually have to repopulate threatened species on their own. It is often protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to it. Older leaves turn yellow, and all of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside. Approximately 52.23% of M. excelsa survival was recorded while the least M. excelsa survival recorded in sole plantation (control) was 24% (Table 2). Their activities interrupt plant physiological processes causing growth reduction and killing the seedlings in most cases9,8. show more data (8) show less data (8)comments (0) comments (0)| | | | The results were recorded as 52.23% of M. excelsa seedling survival, followed by plot mixed with P. africanum (28.02%) while 24% sole plantation was recorded. In a study done on the mineralization of Milicia excelsa,[8] it was observed that in certain conditions Milicia acts as a carbon sink. Epub 2012 Aug 21. Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 months after germination. Its natural habitat is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests. The fruits take about a month to ripen and are eaten by squirrels, bats, and birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. 2 We tested the impact on susceptibility to Phytolyma spp. For two dipterocarp species (Shoreafallaz and S. parvifolia), growth Reaching enormous heights of 50 m (164 ft), iroko is a canopy tree of coastal forests and wet savannas throughout tropical Africa, though overexploitation has narrowed its range. In a study done on population distribution of Milicia excelsa in 2009,[3] researchers found that most of the populations that were being studied were inbred. Milicia regia is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. In contrast, Wagner et al.14 reported that Milicia planted in mixture with Gliricidium sepium reduced gall formation in the mixed plots compared to the pure Milicia stands (Mono plantation). 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