data center architecture design

Also, the spine Layer 3 VXLAN gateway learns the host MAC address, so you need to consider the MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your hardware. A data center is going to probably be the most expensive facility your company ever builds or operates. It also performs internal inter-VXLAN routing and external routing. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. Benefits of a network virtualization overlay include the following: ●      Optimized device functions: Overlay networks allow the separation (and specialization) of device functions based on where a device is being used in the network. It retains the easy-configuration, plug-and-play deployment model of a Layer 2 environment. Ideally, you should map one VXLAN segment to one IP multicast group to provide optimal multicast forwarding. ●      It provides optimal forwarding for east-west and north-south traffic and supports workload mobility with the distributed anycast function on each ToR switch. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper.). After traffic is routed to the destination VLAN, then it is forwarded using the multidestination tree in the destination VLAN. Network overlays are virtual networks of interconnected nodes that share an underlying physical network, allowing deployment of applications that require specific network topologies without the need to modify the underlying network (Figure 5). Table 4 summarizes the characteristics of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network. The Layer 3 spine-and-leaf design intentionally does not support Layer 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it is a Layer 3 fabric. In a typical VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network design, the leaf Top-of-Rack (ToR) switches are enabled as VTEP devices to extend the Layer 2 segments between racks. This helps ensure infrastructure is deployed consistently in a single data center or across multiple data centers, while also helping to reduce costs and the time employees spend maintaining it. Due to the limitations of FabricPath enables new capabilities and design options that allow network operators to create Ethernet fabrics that increase bandwidth availability, provide design flexibility, and simplify and reduce the costs of network and application deployment and operation. A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is responsible for providing permanent data storage. This document reviews several spine-and-leaf architecture designs that Cisco has offered in the recent past as well as current designs and those the Cisco expects to offer in the near future to address fabric requirements in the modern virtualized data center: ●      Cisco® FabricPath spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center (MSDC) Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. Data center design is the process of modeling an,.l designing (Jochim 2017) a data center's IT resources, architectural layout and entire ilfrastructure. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture offers the following main benefits: ●      The MP-BGP EVPN protocol is based on industry standards, allowing multivendor interoperability. IP subnets of the VNIs for a given tenant are in the same Layer 3 VRF instance that separates the Layer 3 routing domain from the other tenants. Layer 3 multitenancy example using VRF-lite, Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network summary. To support multitenancy, same VLANs can be reused on different FabricPath leaf switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames are mapped to specific VN-segments. The VTEP then distributes this information through the MP-BGP EVPN control plane. Regardless of the standard followed, documentation and record keeping of your operation and maintenance activities is one of the most important parts of the process. The Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. You can also have multiple VXLAN segments share a single IP multicast group in the core network; however, the overloading of multicast groups leads to suboptimal multicast forwarding. Table 3 summarizes the characteristics of the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network. After MAC-to-VTEP mapping is complete, the VTEPs forward VXLAN traffic in a unicast stream. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the BGP EVPN control plane or static configuration. They must also play an active role in manageability and operations of the data center. But the FabricPath network is flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing functions are centralized on specific switches. It transports Layer 2 frames over the Layer 3 IP underlay network. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN supports overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic using underlay IP multicast or the ingress replication feature. Each FabricPath switch is identified by a FabricPath switch ID. Data centers often have multiple fiber connections to the internet provided by multiple … This section describes VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN on Cisco Nexus hardware switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series Switches. Internal and external routing at the border leaf. With this design, tenant traffic needs to take two underlay hops (VTEP to spine to border leaf) to reach the external network. Should it have the minimum required by code? But a FabricPath network is a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Table 2. Regarding routing design, the Cisco MSDC control plane uses dynamic Layer 3 protocols such as eBGP to build the routing table that most efficiently routes a packet from a source to a spine node. If you have multiple facilities across the US, then the US standards may apply. The most efficient and effective data center designs use relatively new design fundamentals to create the required high energy density, high reliability environment. Figure 18 shows a typical design with a pair of spine switches connected to the outside routing devices. Figure 20 shows an example of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network with an eBGP control plane (AS = autonomous system). Servers may talk with other servers in different subnets or talk with clients in remote branch offices over the WAN or Internet. A data accessoror a collection of independent components that operate on the central data store, perform computations, and might put back the results. In MP-BGP EVPN, any VTEP in a VNI can be the distributed anycast gateway for end hosts in its IP subnet by supporting the same virtual gateway IP address and the virtual gateway MAC address (shown in Figure 16). As shown in the design for internal and external routing at the border leaf in Figure 7, the spine switch functions as the Layer 2 FabricPath switch and performs intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching only. It doesn’t learn the overlay host MAC address. VXLAN uses a 24-bit segment ID, or VNID, which enables up to 16 million VXLAN segments to coexist in the same administrative domain. Learn more about our thought leaders and innovative projects for a variety of market sectors ranging from Corporate Commercial to Housing, Pre-K – 12 to Higher Education, Healthcare to Science & Technology (including automotive, data centers and crime laboratories). If no oversubscription occurs between the lower-tier switches and their uplinks, then a nonblocking architecture can be achieved. The data center is a dedicated space were your firm houses its most important information and relies on it being safe and accessible. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPS in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Between the aggregation routers and access switches, Spanning Tree Protocol is used to build a loop-free topology for the Layer 2 part of network. Data center design with extended Layer 3 domain. Many different tools are available from Cisco, third parties, and the open-source community that can be used to monitor, manage, automate, and troubleshoot the data center fabric. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348). The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco but is based on the TRILL standard. vPC technology works well in a relatively small data center environment in which most traffic consists of northbound and southbound communication between clients and servers. Green certifications, such as LEED, Green Globes, and Energy Star are also considered optional. VerifythateachendsystemresolvesthevirtualgatewayMACaddressforasubnet usingthegatewayIRBaddressonthecentralgateways(spinedevices). With Layer 2 segments extended across all the pods, the data center administrator can create a central, more flexible resource pool that can be reallocated based on needs. Because the fabric network is so large, MSDC customers typically use software-based approaches to introduce more automation and more modularity into the network. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets become more pronounced. Data Centre World Singapore speaker and mission critical architect Will Ringer attests to the importance of an architect’s eye to data centre design. These are standards that guide your day-to-day processes and procedures once the data center is built: These standards will also vary based on the nature of the business and include guidelines associated with detailed operations and maintenance procedures for all of the equipment in the data center. Your facility must meet the business mission. In the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network, VNIs define the Layer 2 domains and enforce Layer 2 segmentation by not allowing Layer 2 traffic to traverse VNI boundaries. In the VXLAN flood-and-learn mode defined in RFC 7348, end-host information learning and VTEP discovery are both data-plane based, with no control protocol to distribute end-host reachability information among the VTEPs. In 2010, Cisco introduced virtual-port-channel (vPC) technology to overcome the limitations of Spanning Tree Protocol. This course encompasses the basic principles of data center design, tracking its history from the early days of the mainframe to the modern enterprise data center in its many forms and the future. The border leaf switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. VXLAN, one of many available network virtualization overlay technologies, offers several advantages. Data Centered Architecture serves as a blueprint for designing and deploying a data center facility. With virtualized servers, applications are increasingly deployed in a distributed fashion, which leads to increased east-west traffic. Data center design, construction, and operational standards should be chosen based on definition of that mission. The data center design is built on a supported layered approach, which has been verified and improved over the past several years in some of the major data center employments in the world. ), Supports both Layer 2 multitenancy and Layer 3 multitenancy, RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). This scoping allows potential overlap in MAC and IP addresses between tenants. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as the FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. The SVIs on the border leaf switches perform inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. Code minimum fire suppression would involve having wet pipe sprinklers in your data center. On each FabricPath leaf switch, the network keeps the 4096 VLAN spaces, but across the whole FabricPath network, it can support up to 16 million VN-segments, at least in theory. Hosts attached to remote VTEPs are learned remotely through the MP-BGP control plane. Figure 4 shows a typical two-tiered spine-and-leaf topology. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. There are also many operational standards to choose from. Best practices ensure that you are doing everything possible to keep it that way. In a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic is supported using underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). The switch virtual interfaces (SVIs) on the spine switch are performing inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency information with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. However, Spanning Tree Protocol cannot use parallel forwarding paths, and it always blocks redundant paths in a VLAN. Internal and external routing on the border leaf. ●      It reduces network flooding through protocol-based host MAC address IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. A legacy mindset in data center architecture revolves around the notion of “design now, deploy later.” The approach to creating a versatile, digital-ready data center must involve the deployment of infrastructure during the design session. It is clear from past history that code minimum is not the best practice. Spine switches are performing intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching. It also addresses how these resources/devices will be interconnected and how physical and logical security workflows are arranged. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). However, it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. An additional spine switch can be added, and uplinks can be extended to every leaf switch, resulting in the addition of interlayer bandwidth and reduction of the oversubscription. Data Centered Architecture is also known as Database Centric Architecture. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane. When traffic needs to be routed between VXLAN segments or from a VXLAN segment to a VLAN segment and vice visa, the Layer 3 VXLAN gateway function needs to be enabled on some VTEPs. It provides a simple, flexible, and stable network, with good scalability and fast convergence characteristics, and it can use multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. Please note that TRM is only supported on newer generation of Nexus 9000 switches such as Cloud Scale ASIC–based switches. Example of MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network with BGP control plane. It enables you to provision, monitor, and troubleshoot the data center network infrastructure. Data center design is a relatively new field that houses a dynamic and evolving technology. ●      LAN Fabric mode: provides Fabric Builder for automated VXLAN EVPN fabric underlay deployment, overlay deployment, end-to-end flow trace, alarm and troubleshooting, configuration compliance and device lifecycle management, etc. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets become more pronounced. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. It provides real-time health summaries, alarms, visibility information, etc. For feature support and for more information about Cisco FabricPath technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. TOP 25 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS RANK COMPANY 2016 DATA CENTER REVENUE 1 Jacobs $58,960,000 2 Corgan $38,890,000 3 Gensler $23,000,000 4 HDR $14,913,721 5 Page $14,500,000 6 Sheehan Partners Top 25 data center architecture firms | Building Design + Construction But routed traffic needs to traverse two hops: leaf to spine and then to the default gateway on the border leaf to be routed. It transports Layer 2 frames over a Layer 3 IP underlay network. Similarly, there is no single way to manage the data center fabric. Designing the modern data center begins with the careful placement of “good bones.”. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by the distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. Note that the ingress-replication feature is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Common Layer 3 designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Layer 3 multitenancy example with VRF-lite, Cisco FabricPath Spine-and-Leaf network summary. The traditional data center uses a three-tier architecture, with servers segmented into pods based on location, as shown in Figure 1. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. But it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Between the aggregation routers and access switches, Spanning Tree Protocol is used to build a loop-free topology for the Layer 2 part of network. An international series of data center standards in continuous development is the EN 50600 series. The border leaf router is enabled with the Layer 3 VXLAN gateway and performs internal inter-VXLAN routing and external routing. https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/sites/datacenterknowledge.com/files/logos/DCK_footer.png, The choice of standards should be driven by the organization’s business mission, Top500: Japan’s Fugaku Still the World’s Fastest Supercomputer, Intel’s Ice Lake Chips to Enable Confidential Computing on Data Center-Grade Servers. Although the concept of a network overlay is not new, interest in network overlays has increased in the past few years because of their potential to address some of these requirements. ), Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network needs to provide Layer 3 internal VXLAN routing as well as maintain connectivity with the networks that are external to the VXLAN fabric, including the campus network, WAN, and Internet. Data Center Architects are responsible for adequately securing the Data Center and should examine factors such as facility design and architecture. ), ●      Border spine switch for external routing, (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing on hardware. The placement of a Layer 3 function in a FabricPath network needs to be carefully designed. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network supports up to two active-active gateways with vPC for internal VXLAN routing. Each section outlines the most important technology components (encapsulation; end-host detection and distribution; broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast traffic forwarding; underlay and overlay control plane, multitenancy support, etc. You need to design multicast group scaling carefully, as described earlier in the section discussing Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn multicast traffic. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can b… Every leaf switch connects to every spine switch in the fabric. Customer edge links (access and trunk) carry traditional VLAN tagged and untagged frames. Hyperscale users and increased demand have turned data into the new utility, making quicker, leaner facilities a must. The VXLAN flood-and-learn network is a Layer 2 overlay network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 overlay network. Table 3. Here’s a sample from the 2005 standard (click the image to enlarge): TIA has a certification system in place with dedicated vendors that can be retained to provide facility certification. This section describes Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn characteristic on these Cisco hardware switches. Linkedin Twitter Facebook Subscribe. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. As shown in the design for internal and external routing on the spine layer in Figure 12, the leaf ToR VTEP switch is a Layer 2 VXLAN gateway to transport the Layer 2 segment over the underlay Layer 3 IP network. The border leaf switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. Layer 3 IP multicast traffic is forwarded by Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing. The data center architecture specifies where and how the server, storage networking, racks and other data center resources will be physically placed. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel two underlay hops from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch and then to the border leaf switch to reach the external network. It is arranged as a guide for data center design, construction, and operation. These are the VN-segment edge ports. It encapsulates Ethernet frames into IP User Data Protocol (UDP) headers and transports the encapsulated packets through the underlay network to the remote VXLAN tunnel endpoints (VTEPs) using the normal IP routing and forwarding mechanism. This design complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay. This Shortest-Path First (SPF) routing protocol is used to determine reachability and select the best path or paths to any given destination FabricPath switch in the FabricPath network. The multi-tier approach includes web, application, and database tiers of servers. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper. Intel RSD defines key aspects of a logical architecture to implement CDI. With VRF-lite, the number of VLANs supported across the FabricPath network is 4096. As shown in the design for internal and external routing at the border spine in Figure 6, the spine switch functions as the Layer 2 and Layer 3 boundary and server subnet gateway. ●      The EVPN address family carries both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. Its control-plane protocol, FabricPath IS-IS, is designed to determine FabricPath switch ID reachability information. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by a distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. The nature of your business will determine which standards are appropriate for your facility. Could Nvidia’s $40B Arm Gamble Get Stuck at the Edge? The ease of expansion optimizes the IT department’s process of scaling the network. This architecture has been proven to deliver the high-bandwidth, low-latency, nonblocking server-to-server connectivity. For Layer 2 multicast traffic, traffic entering the FabricPath switch is hashed to a multidestination tree to be forwarded. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. This architecture is the physical and logical layout of the resources and equipment within a data center facility. The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. However, three-tier architecture is unable to handle the growing demand of cloud computing. NIA constantly scans the customer’s network and provides proactive advice with a focus on maintaining availability and alerting customers about potential issues that can impact uptime. This series of articles will focus on the major best practices applicable across all types of data centers, including enterprise, colocation, and internet facilities. Modern Data Center Design and Architecture. To support multitenancy, the same VLAN can be reused on different VTEP switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames received on VTEPs are mapped to specific VNIs. About the author: Steven Shapiro has been in the mission critical industry since 1988 and has a diverse background in the study, reporting, design, commissioning, development and management of reliable electrical distribution, emergency power, lighting, and fire protection systems for high tech environments. The target of maximum efficiency is achieved by considering these below-mentioned factors. Table 5 compares the four Cisco spine-and-leaf architectures discussed in this document: FabricPath, VXLAN flood-and-learn, VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN, and MSDC Layer 3 networks. Each VTEP performs local learning to obtain MAC address (though traditional MAC address learning) and IP address information (based on Address Resolution Protocol [ARP] snooping) from its locally attached hosts. Data Center Knowledge is part of the Informa Tech Division of Informa PLC. Number 8860726. TRM is based on a standards-based next-generation control plane (ngMVPN) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514. This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. But most networks are not pure Layer 2 networks. ), Any unicast routing protocol (static, OSPF, IS-IS, eBGP, etc. Examples of MSDCs are large cloud service providers that host thousands of tenants, and web portal and e-commerce providers that host large distributed applications. For more information on Cisco Network Insights, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using VRF-lite (Figure 15). With the anycast gateway function in EVPN, end hosts in a VNI always can use their local VTEPs for this VNI as their default gateway to send traffic out of their IP subnet. A typical FabricPath network uses a spine-and-leaf architecture. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture is one of the latest innovations from Cisco. However, the spine switch needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing and the VXLAN VTEP function. at the time of this writing. A good data center design should plan to automate as many of the operational functions that employees perform as possible. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. Each VXLAN segment has a VXLAN network identifier (VNID), and the VNID is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets are more pronounced. We will review codes, design standards, and operational standards. Figure 17 shows a typical design using a pair of border leaf switches connected to outside routing devices. The overlay encapsulation also allows the underlying infrastructure address space to be administered separately from the tenant address space. ●      Media controller mode: manages Cisco IP Fabric network for Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure. Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison. Critical facilities are becoming more diverse as technology advances create market shifts. ), (Note: TRM is supported on Cisco Nexus 9000 Cloud Scale Series Switches). It extends Layer 2 segments over a Layer 3 infrastructure to build Layer 2 overlay logical networks. It enables the logical ●      It provides VTEP peer discovery and authentication, mitigating the risk from rogue VTEPs in the VXLAN overlay network. With vPC technology, Spanning Tree Protocol is still used as a fail-safe mechanism. We will discuss best practices with respect to facility conceptual design, space planning, building construction, and physical security, as well as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection. VLANs are extended within each pod that servers can move freely within the pod without the need to change IP address and default gateway configurations. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network supports Layer 2 multitenancy with the VXLAN network (VN)-segment feature (Figure 8). Border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348), which defined a multicast-based flood-and-learn VXLAN without a control plane. Similarly, Layer 3 segmentation among VXLAN tenants is achieved by applying Layer 3 VRF technology and enforcing routing isolation among tenants by using a separate Layer 3 VNI mapped to each VRF instance. There are two types of components − 1. Today, most web-based applications are built as multi-tier applications. The investment giant is one of the biggest advocates outside Silicon Valley for open source hardware, and the new building itself is a modular, just-in-time construction design. The result is increased stability and scalability, fast convergence, and the capability to use multiple parallel paths typical in a Layer 3 routed environment. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 internal and external routing functions are centralized on specific switches. The Cisco Nexus 9000 Series introduced an ingress replication feature, so the underlay network is multicast free. The entire purpose of designing a data center revolves around maximum utilization of IT resources for the sake of boosted efficiency, improved sales, and operational costs and fewer environmental effects. The leaf layer consists of access switches that connect to devices such as servers. In most cases, the spine switch is not used to directly connect to the outside world or to other MSDC networks, but it will forward such traffic to specialized leaf switches acting as border leaf switches. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Since 2003, with the introduction of virtual technology, the computing, networking, and storage resources that were segregated in pods in Layer 2 in the three-tier data center design can be pooled. The key is to choose a standard and follow it. The Azure Architecture Center provides best practices for running your workloads on Azure. Table 1. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. That is definitely not best practice. A Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. Software management tools such as DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), EPMS (Electrical Power Monitoring System), and DMS (Document Management System) for operations and maintenance can provide a “single pane of glass” to view all required procedures, infrastructure assets, maintenance activities, and operational issues. With IP multicast enabled in the underlay network, each VXLAN segment, or VNID, is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. The FabricPath network is a Layer 2 network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 FabricPath switch. For more details regarding MSDC designs with Cisco Nexus 9000 and 3000 switches, please refer “Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper”. External routing with border spine design. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can be found in greater definition in UI’s white paper TUI3026E. The impact of broadcast and unknown unicast traffic flooding needs to be carefully considered in the FabricPath network design. Each host is associated with a host subnet and talks with other hosts through Layer 3 routing. 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. As an extension to MP-BGP, MP-BGP EVPN inherits the support for multitenancy with VPN using the VRF construct. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn’t have a control plane for the overlay network. End-host information in the overlay network is learned through the flood-and-learn mechanism with conversational learning. These formats include Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN), Network Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation (NVGRE), Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL), and Location/Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP). As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. This approach keeps latency at a predictable level because a payload only has to hop to a spine switch and another leaf switch to reach its destination. The external routing function is centralized on specific switches. Encapsulation format and standards compliance. Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices: This standard covers the major aspects of planning, design, construction, and commissioning of the MEP building trades, as well as fire protection, IT, and maintenance. For Layer 3 IP multicast traffic, traffic needs to be forwarded by Layer 3 multicast using Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM). Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements, with an emphasis on application performance, network simplicity and stability, visibility, easy troubleshooting and easy life cycle management, etc. Moreover, scalability is another major issue in three-tier DCN. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. Enterprise and High Performance Computing users recognize the value of critical facilities — connecting to a brand is as important as connecting to the campus. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Traditional three-tier data center design. Our client-first culture and multi-disciplinary architecture and engineering experts recognize the power of design in transforming the human experience. ), ●      Storage Area Network (SAN) controller mode: manages Cisco MDS Series switches for storage network deployment with graphical control for all SAN administration functions. As shown in the design for internal and external routing on the border leaf in Figure 13, the leaf ToR VTEP switch is a Layer 2 VXLAN gateway to transport the Layer 2 segment over the underlay Layer 3 IP network. FabricPath is a Layer 2 network fabric technology, which allows you to easily scale the network capacity simply by adding more spine nodes and leaf nodes at Layer 2. Will has experience with large US hyperscale clients, serving as project architect for three years on a hyperscale project in Holland, and with some of the largest engineering firms. It is designed to simplify, optimize, and automate the modern multitenancy data center fabric environment. ●      Fabric scalability and flexibility: Overlay technologies allow the network to scale by focusing scaling on the network overlay edge devices. The Cisco FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco. TOP 30 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS Rank Firm 2015 Revenue 1 Gensler $34,240,000 2 Corgan $32,400,000 3 HDR $15,740,000 4 Page $14,100,000 5 CallisonRTKL $6,102,000 6 RS&H $5,400,000 7 … Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. With a spine-and-leaf architecture, no matter which leaf switch to which a server is connected, its traffic always has to cross the same number of devices to get to another server (unless the other server is located on the same leaf). Join millions of people using Oodle to find unique job listings, employment offers, part time jobs, and employment news. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. Spine devices are responsible for learning infrastructure routes and end-host subnet routes. The origins of the Uptime Institute as a data center users group established it as the first group to measure and compare a data center’s reliability. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Data center architecture and engineering firm Integrated Design Group is merging with national firm HED in a deal that illustrates the rising profile for the data center industry. Explore HED’s integrated architectural and engineering practice. Two major design options are available: internal and external routing at a border spine, and internal and external routing at a border leaf. FabricPath technology currently supports up to four FabricPath anycast gateways. Cisco introduced FabricPath technology in 2010. The multi-tier model uses software that runs as separate processes on the same machine using interprocess communication (IPC), or on different machines with communication… It reduces network flooding through control-plane-based host MAC and IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. The border leaf switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. Cisco DCNM can be installed in four modes: ●      Classic LAN mode: manages Cisco Nexus Data Center infrastructure deployed in legacy designs, such as vPC design, FabricPath design, etc. The maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with an HSRP and vPC configuration. Table 5. For feature support and more information about Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Not all facilities supporting your specific industry will meet your defined mission, so your facility may not look or operate like another, even in the same industry. ●      It uses the decade-old MP-BGP VPN technology to support scalable multitenant VXLAN overlay networks. Cisco Layer 3 MSDC network characteristics, Data Center fabric management and automation. The three-tier is the common network architecture used in data centers. Modern virtualized data center fabrics must meet certain requirements to accelerate application deployment and support DevOps needs. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. It is part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network and transports the VXLAN encapsulated packets. However, vPC can provide only two active parallel uplinks, and so bandwidth becomes a bottleneck in a three-tier data center architecture. Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for the VXLAN overlay network. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any IGP of choice. To overcome the limitations of flood-and-learn VXLAN, Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol Ethernet Virtual Private Network, or MP-BGP EVPN, as the control plane for VXLAN. From Cisco DCNM Release 11.2, Cisco Network Insights applications are supported; these applications consist of monitoring utilities that can be added to the Data Center Network Manager (DCNM). It is simple, flexible, and stable; it has good scalability and fast convergence characteristics; and it supports multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. The architect must demonstrate the capacity to develop a robust server and storage architecture. VNIs are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. You need to consider MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your hardware. ●      It enables control-plane learning of end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, enabling organizations to build more robust and scalable VXLAN overlay networks. VN-segments are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. Data center architecture is usually created in the data center design and constructing phase. It is a for-profit entity that will certify a facility to its standard, for which the standard is often criticized. The FabricPath network supports up to four anycast gateways for internal VLAN routing. Overlay tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic is supported by two ways: (1) Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing on an external router for Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches including the Cisco Nexus 7700 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Fidelity is opening a new data center in Nebraska this fall. This feature uses a 24-bit increased name space. The Certified Data Centre Design Professional (CDCDP®) program is proven to be an essential certification for individuals wishing to demonstrate their technical knowledge of data centre architecture and component operating conditions. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. A distributed anycast gateway also offers the benefit of transparent host mobility in the VXLAN overlay network. The FabricPath IS-IS control plane builds reachability information about how to reach other FabricPath switches. The requirement to enable multicast capabilities in the underlay network presents a challenge to some organizations because they do not want to enable multicast in their data centers or WANs. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 2 FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation, and it uses FabricPath IS-IS for the control-plane in the underlay network. Most customers use eBGP because of its scalability and stability. However, the spine switch only needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing; it doesn’t need to support the VXLAN VTEP function. Routed traffic needs to traverse only one hop to reach to default gateway at the spine switches to be routed. Gensler, Corgan, and HDR top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest data center sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report. Many aspects of this standard reflect the UI, TIA, and BCSI standards. Cisco’s MSDC topology design uses a Layer 3 spine-and-leaf architecture. Ratings/Reliability is defined by Class 0 to 4 and certified by BICSI-trained and certified professionals. It uses FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation. Architecture & Design Jobs in Davenport, IA posted on Oodle. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco, but it is mature technology and has been widely deployed.

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